neural crest cell


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neural crest cell

Embryonic cells of the neuron-glia lineage that form along the ridges (neural folds) of the neural plate and that migrate into the developing organism to produce a variety of tissues. The migratory ability of these embryonic epithelial cells is similar to the motility of mesenchyme cells; this has led neural crest cells to be called mesectodermal cells. In the neural lineage, neural crest cells give rise to the dorsal root ganglia, the placodes that will develop into the olfactory and auditory sensory organs, the pituitary gland, the peripheral autonomic nervous system, and the neurenteric and APUD cells. In the glial lineage, neural crest cells give rise to Schwann cells and other peripheral satellite cells. In addition, neural crest cells of the cranial region give rise to certain facial connective tissue, including the bones of the nasal cavities, the roof of the mouth, and the sella turcica.
See also: cell
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References in periodicals archive ?
The appearance of neural crest cells has been intimately linked to the evolution of predation in vertebrates and invention of the "new head" (Gans and Northcutt, 1983; Glenn Northcutt, 2005; Northcutt, 2005).
The fastest of these protocols takes 12 days (of very costly culture conditions) to convert human embryonic stem cells to neural crest cells. Often the protocols provide low yields, making the isolation of the desired neural crest cells a time-consuming and technically challenging process.
Neural crest cells play a role in the development of cartilage and bone in the face, smooth muscle, pigment cells, parts of the nervous system and the adrenal glands, which control the fight-or-flight response.
Lack of beta1 integrins in enteric neural crest cells leads to a Hirschsprung-like phenotype.
In other studies focusing on the generation of chondrogenic progeny via neural crest cells, Umeda et al.
Neural crest cells appear early in human and other animal prenatal development, and they give rise to many important structures, including most of the nervous system (apart from the brain and spinal cord), the bones of the skull and jaws, and pigment-producing skin cells.
The researchers caution that, at this point, their findings pertain solely to neural crest cells, but the same approach could be explored to understand cell differentiation in other tissues.
The membranous part of the interventricular septum, embryologically a neural crest cell derivative, was also affected in both treated groups (A and B), the difference was statistically insignificant (p greater than 0.05).