CLSI disc diffusion method Antimicrobial (interpretation) Ampicillin R Chloramphenicol R Ciprofloxacin R Cotrimoxazole R Co-amoxiclav R Cefotaxime R Cefixime R Cefepime R Aztreonam R Imipenem S Meropenem S Ertapenem S Amikacin S Netilmicin
S R, resistance; S, susceptible.
strain showed resistance to the following: ampicillin (AMP), amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC), cefalotin (CF), piperacillin (PIP), piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP), cefuroxime (CXM), cefoxitin (FOX), cefotaxime (CTX), ceftriaxone (CRO), aztreonam (ATM), ceftazidime (CAZ), cefepime (FEP), imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEM), ertapenem (ETP), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (SXT), amikacin (AK), tobramycin (NN), netilmicin
(NET), ampicillin-sulbactam (SAM), ciprofloxacin (CIP), chloramphenicol (C).
(9) The isolates were tested for susceptibility to amikacin (AMK), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), ampicillin (AMP), ampicillin/sulbactam (SAM), aztreonam (ATM), cefepime (FEP), cefotaxime (CTX), cefoxitin (FOX), ceftazidime (CAZ), ciprofloxacin (CIP), imipenem (IMP), meropenem (MEM), netilmicin
(NET), and piperacillin/tazobactam (PTZ).
According to Proteus mirabilis (16%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (19%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26%) resistance to netilmicin
, this drug has similar antibacterial spectrum to that of gentamicin, with the same nephro/oto/vestibulotoxicity disadvantages.
High resistance was found for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, 82.7%, cefipime, 79.3%, netilmicin
, 72.4% and azetreonam, 55.1%.
Drug resistance to amikacin, tobramycin, netilmicin
, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin was significantly changed after recurrent infection.
aureus observed for various antibiotics were as follows: amoxicillin (20.9%), erythromycin (8.8%), clindamycin (5%), cefotaxime (3.7%), gentamicin (3%), ciprofloxacin (2.4%), rifampicin (1%), netilmicin
, and 5 (0.3%).
He had used dexamethasone/ netilmicin
combination and ketorolac drops, which were not prescribed by a physician.
Susceptibility to different antibiotics such as amikacin, netilmicin
, levofloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, tobramycin, imipenem, meropenem, and colistin was determined by disk diffusion testing according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines (M100-S23 2013) ,
baumannii infections was 95.5% for ciprofloxacin, 72.7% for cefepime, 80.3% for imipenem, 17.2% for meropenem, 68.2% for cefoperazone/sulbactam, 30.3% for netilmicin
, 25.8% for tigecycline, and 0% for colistin.
aureus Surgical Oxa, Gen, Tob, Ami, Kan, Sis, Neo, Para, But, Sa358 wound Net Ast = aztreonan; Ax = amoxicillin; Amp = ampicillin; Ami = amikacin; Amox = amoxicillin; Ca = cefadroxil; Cfr = cefaclor; Cf = cefalothin; Caz = ceftazidime; Cip = ciprofloxacin; Chl = chloramphenicol; Im = imipenem; Kan = kanamycin; Szt = sulfametrim; Tc = tetracycline; Tob = tobramycin; Oxa = oxacillin; Gen = gentamicin; Sis = sisomicin; Neo = neomycin; Para = paramomycin; But = butirosin; Net = netilmicin
. Table 2.
Standard antibiotics such as netilmicin
, 5-flucytocine and itraconazole were used as positive controls, for the antibacterial and antifungal activity.