In July 2012, the FDA released the results of tests it has conducted looking for salmonella, heavy metals, furans, pesticides, antibiotics, mycotoxins, rodenticides, nephrotoxins
(such as aristolochic acid, maleic acid, paraquat, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, toxic hydrocarbons, melamine, and related triazines), and other chemicals and poisonous compounds.
In vitro-effect of the nephrotoxins
ochratoxin A and citrinin upon biochemical function of porcine kidney.
A greater than ten-fold increase in plasma N6AL and a greater than 100-fold increase in urine NGAL have been reported in patients with acute renal failure secondary to sepsis, ischemia, or nephrotoxins
as compared to those in normal controls.
Risk factors for amphotericin B-induced renal toxicity include volume depletion, pre-existing renal impairment, use of concomitant nephrotoxins
, and high single and cumulative doses.
tuberosa possesses marked nephroprotective activity and could have promising role in the treatment of acute renal injury induced by nephrotoxins
Volume expansion is performed in an effort to increase GFR as well as dilute myoglobin and other nephrotoxins
released in rhabdomyolysis.
Other prophylactic measures: Minimize exposure to nephrotoxins
(eg, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs or contrast media) to the extent possible.
Monitoring trough vancomycin concentrations to reduce nephrotoxicity is best suited to patients receiving aggressive dosing targeted to produce sustained trough levels of 15-20 mg/L, or patients at high risk of toxicity, such as those receiving concurrent nephrotoxins
Other individual risks include hypertension, proteinuria, current use of NSAIDs or other nephrotoxins
, and intra-arterial injection of contrast.
The most frequent ADE surveillance categories were nephrotoxins
(21 percent), narcotics and benzodiazepines (19 percent), and hypoglycemia (11.
The current treatment of SOS consists of minimizing any exposure to recognized hepatotoxins and avoiding nephrotoxins
, the use of analgesia for pain, limiting the individual's intake of sodium, diuresis and/or paracentesis, and the correction of any coagulopathy.
toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins