By and large, patients with AKI are treated with supportive measures (e.g., acute dialysis, avoidance of nephrotoxins
, maintaining adequate renal perfusion), and this care has essentially been unchanged over the last 10 years.
Megalin has been implicated in the uptake of several nephrotoxins
, including folate, cadmium, gentamicin, and colistin [21-24].
It is important for physicians to counsel SCT patients on these increased risks of kidney injury and advise them to avoid nephrotoxins
, stay hydrated, and avoid excessive physical exertion.
The nonoliguric state may be present in all types of AKI, including those following surgery, trauma, hypotension, nephrotoxins
, and rhabdomyolysis.
Ochratoxins are considered to be the most powerful carcinogens, teratogens, nephrotoxins
, and immune-toxins particularly in rats, humans and likely in poultry [53-55].
Thus, increases in serum creatinine are considered clinically to indicate decreased GFR, as would be expected from nephrotoxins
, obstruction, or acute kidney injury.
Porter, Clinical Nephrotoxins
: Renal Injury from Drugs and Chemicals, Springer Science & Business Media, 3th edition, 2008.
Scorpion venom contains a mixture of several low molecular weight basic proteins, neurotoxins, nucleotides, amino acids, oligopeptides, cardiotoxins, nephrotoxins
, haemolytic toxins, phosphodiesterase, phospholipase A, hyaluronidase, acetylcholinesterase, glycosaminoglycans, histamine, serotonin, 5-hydroxyptamine and proteins that inhibit protease, angiotensinase, succinate-dehydrogenase, ribonuclease, and 5-nucleotidase.
Food contamination by nephrotoxins
(mycotoxins or some other toxins) (27).
Effects of nephrotoxins
and ischaemia in experimental haemoglobinuria.
The limited data available indicate that in the process of neonatal ICU care, such babies receive many nephrotoxins
, and that those dying prior to discharge from the nursery have fewer and larger glomeruli (21).
Acute tubular necrosis due to ischemia or nephrotoxins
leads to a marked increase in NGAL excretion .