It is well documented that high serum urea and Cr levels are considered the major nephrotoxic
markers (Adelman et al., 1981).
Cadmium: Exposure markers as predictors of nephrotoxic
Our findings are in agreement with a review study by Rodrigo et al., which demonstrated a significantly increased risk of AKI in critically ill patients with older age, diabetes, hypertension, higher baseline creatinine, heart failure, sepsis, use of nephrotoxic
In conclusion, GBCA is potentially nephrotoxic
when used for endovascular intervention in patients with CKD.
Given the known involvement of [Ca.sup.2+] in the nephrotoxic
action of gentamicin in proximal tubules, the purpose of this study was to establish a relationship between the concentration of intracellular [Ca.sup.2+] ([[[Ca.sup.2+]].sub.i]) and cellular cytotoxicity, using MDCK-C11 cells, a clone that has several properties that resemble those of intercalated cells of the distal nephron.
Dabigatran, aspirin, and nephrotoxic
home medications were withheld.
We considered the following nephrotoxic
drug exposures during hospitalization, including during the first 24 h: nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, iodinated contrast media, diuretics, renin angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitors, and nephrotoxic
antimicrobial drugs (aminoglycosides, glycopeptides).
The data extracted included: (i) demographic data: age and sex; (ii) laboratory data: serum creatinine (SCr), CD4 lymphocyte counts, HIV-1 RNA viremia (viral load - VL); (iii) clinical data: body weight, comorbid conditions (diabetes, hypertension), co-infections with hepatitis B or C viruses, co-administration of nephrotoxic
agents such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), cotrimoxazole, acyclovir, streptomycin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and amphotericin B.
Although the exact mechanism of AAS-associated kidney injury remains to be elucidated, there is evidence that these substances, along with several other supplements, are nephrotoxic
and its use can cause severe kidney disease, as previously reported.
High risk patients should be advised to stop nephrotoxic
medications for 24 hours prior to and for 48 hours following the CM procedure, pending a renal function test (Rear, Bell & Hausenloy, 2017).
AKI in generally associated with use of aminoglycoside antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which are used for closure of patent ductus arteriosis while some studies have also reported genetic risk factors of acute renal failure among neonates.16
Mean creatinine remained stable at approximately 120 mumol/L but a majority of patients had co-existing conditions for which they were receiving nephrotoxic