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Recently developed 3D fluoroscopy guidance systems have demonstrated utility in percutaneous needle interventions, including biopsy, ablation, aspiration and/or drainage, nephrostomy tube placement, and vertebroplasty (3).
In some cases, patients may have a nephrostomy tube exiting the surgical site which is used to drain excess fluid from the kidney such as urine and blood.
After treating the urinary tract infection with intravenous antibiotics and inserting a left nephrostomy tube under ultrasound guidance, a left semi-rigid ureteroscopy for ureteric calculi and percutaneous nephrolithotomy for the renal stones were performed simultaneously (Fig.
6) Our patient's urinothorax was secondary to tract formation from nephrostomy tube placement as evidenced on CT.
On initial presentation to the emergency room, the patient had fever and flank pain consistent with a ureteral obstruction (due to a bladder tumor) and associated hydronephrosis that had required previous placement of a pericuta-neous nephrostomy tube.
Generally, patients stay in the hospital for several days and may have a small tube called a nephrostomy tube left in the kidney during the healing process.
After all, most urologists will ultimately need or use the nephrostomy tube for a second- look nephroscopy in the minority of patients.
After completion of the last stage of PCNL, the nephrostomy tube is placed according to the standard procedure.
At that time, it was found that a 20-cm segment of right ureter was destroyed, and a nephrostomy tube was inserted.
A recent large study reported on 238 patients who underwent open pyeloplasty drained with preoperative nephrostomy tube, no stent, an externalized feeding tube brought through the renal pelvis and DJ stent with nephrostomy tube.
The decision whether to leave a nephrostomy tube in place and the use of a new double J depends on intraoperative findings.