nephrosis


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Related to nephrosis: hydronephrosis

nephrosis

 [nĕ-fro´sis]
2. any kidney disease, especially one marked by purely degenerative lesions of the renal tubules. adj., adj nephrot´ic. Often the cause is not known. When a viral infection precedes the symptoms, it is probably a precipitating rather than a causative factor. There may be not one but several pathologic processes involved, all of which affect the glomerular membranes, increasing their permeability to protein.

The loss of proteins, especially albumin, by leakage from the capillaries into the urine, produces a shift of fluids from the intravascular fluid compartment into the interstitial spaces. The result is edema and hypovolemia, which stimulates tubular reabsorption of sodium and water to increase intravascular volume. These pathologic processes and others that are less well understood bring about the group of symptoms known as the nephrotic syndrome.

The first sign noted is usually swelling about the eyes on rising in the morning that subsides during the day. As edema worsens there is a gradual weight gain, which parents may mistake for healthy growth. The fluid shift progresses and eventually causes abdominal swelling from ascites, respiratory difficulty from pleural effusion, and generalized edema. anasarca (severe generalized swelling) sometimes occurs in association with an acute infection. Intestinal edema can cause diarrhea and anorexia. There is also a diminished output of urine, which is dark and frothy.
Diagnosis and Treatment. Laboratory analyses of urine and blood reveal proteinuria, elevated specific gravity of the urine, decreased serum proteins, and elevated serum cholesterol levels. Renal biopsy and the appearance of renal tissue under microscopic examination can establish the diagnosis and identify the type of nephrotic syndrome present.

Treatment includes rest during the edema phase, management of fluid balance, and administration of corticosteroids such as prednisone. Corticosteroid therapy is gradually decreased until the urine is free of proteins and edema subsides. About 80 per cent of children with nephrosis have a favorable prognosis. Cases resistant to this therapy may be given an immunosuppressant such as cytoxan, which is alternated with prednisone every other day.
Patient Care. The acutely ill child is hospitalized for diagnostic testing and placed on bed rest until there is remission of symptoms. In the presence of massive edema, sodium is restricted but water usually is not. While on bed rest the child will need diligent skin care to prevent breakdown of the skin over edematous tissues. Measures are taken to avoid respiratory infections to which these children are especially susceptible.

Monitoring includes measurement of vital signs, daily weight, fluid intake and output, and abdominal girth. The progress of edema is assessed daily or more often as indicated. Once the swelling subsides the child usually is less lethargic and should be ready and eager to resume usual activities.

In preparation for discharge the parents are taught how to test urine for albumin, the purpose and untoward side effects of prescribed medications, signs of relapse, and the techniques and importance of avoiding infection. Referral to a home health care nurse or visiting nurse may be appropriate if the parents have a need for continued support and guidance.
amyloid nephrosis chronic nephrosis with amyloid degeneration of the median coat of the arteries and glomerular capillaries.
lipid nephrosis (lipoid nephrosis) minimal change disease.
lower nephron nephrosis renal insufficiency leading to uremia, due to necrosis of the lower nephron cells that blocks the tubular lumens of this region; seen after severe injuries, especially crushing injury to muscles. See also crush syndrome.

ne·phro·sis

(ne-frō'sis),
1. Synonym(s): nephropathy
2. Degeneration of renal tubular epithelium.
3. Synonym(s): nephrotic syndrome
[nephro- + G. -osis, condition]

nephrosis

(nə-frō′sĭs)
n. pl. nephro·ses (-sēz)
A disease of the kidneys marked by degenerative lesions, especially of the winding uriniferous tubules.

ne·phrot′ic (-frŏt′ĭk) adj.

nephrosis

(1) Nephrotic syndrome, see there.
(2) A non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic disease of kidney, typically used with modifiers (e.g., lipoid nephrosis).

nephrosis

Nephrology
1. Nephrotic syndrome, see there. See Nil disease, Myeloma kidney. Cf Nephritis.
2. A noninflammatory, nonneoplastic disease of kidney. See Bile nephrosis, Cholemic nephrosis.

ne·phro·sis

(ne'frō'sis)
1. Synonym(s): nephropathy.
2. Degeneration of renal tubular epithelium.
3. Synonym(s): nephrotic syndrome.
[nephro- + G. -osis, condition]

nephrosis

See NEPHROTIC SYNDROME.

nephrosis

degenerative changes in the epithelium of the kidney tubules, resulting in large molucules leaving the blood plasma and being excreted in the urine.

Nephrosis

Any degenerative disease of the kidney (not to be confused with nephritis, an inflammation of the kidney due to bacteria).
References in periodicals archive ?
Risk Factors for CIN * Pre-existing renal disease * CRT clearance <50 ml/min/1.73m2 * Vascular disease * Surgery * Diabetes * Age over 75 * Dehydration * Heart failure * Cirrhosis or nephrosis * Two contrast studies within 72 hours * Hypertension * Proteinuria * Current use of NSAIDs * Intra-arterial injection of contrast * Contrast medium at high doses When Do We Think about Prevention?
Heart disease (652,486), cancer (553,888), stroke (150,074), chronic lower respiratory tract diseases (121,987), unintentional injuries (112,012), diabetes (73,138), Alzheimer's disease (65,965), influenza/pneumonia (59,664), renal disease (nephritis, nephritic syndrome, and nephrosis, 42,480), septicemia (33,373), suicide (32,439), chronic liver disease and cirrhosis (27,013), primary hypertension and hypertensive renal disease (23,076), Parkinson's (17,989), and homicide (17,757) accounted for 83.7% of all the deaths, according to the National Center for Health Statistics.
The management decision included consideration of both the risk of clot propagation in a patient with ongoing nephrosis and the risk of post-biopsy renal haemorrhage.
Although these authors did not specify the type of disorders found, they suggest that they could be related to those suffered by workers also exposed to chronic vibrations, including, in women, conditions such as displaced genital organs and bladder and, in men, nephrosis, twisted ureter, frequent prostatitis, and diseases of the urinary tract.
Used VA Healthcare Cause of Death Yes (%) No (%) Diseases of Heart 20.4 21.9 Malignant Neoplasms 31.7 26.3 Cerebrovascular Diseases 6.8 9.4 Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases 4.2 7.9 Accidents (unintentional injuries) 3.6 3.3 Diabetes Mellitus 2.3 2.0 Influenza and Pneumonia 0.6 2.4 Nephritis, Nephritic Syndrome, and Nephrosis 0.0 0.7 Intentional Self-Harm (suicide) 1.6 0.9 Septicemia 0.3 0.8 Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis 0.6 0.7 Assault (homicide) 0.0 0.4 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 0.0 0.0 Other 27.9 23.3 Alcohol- and/or Drug-Induced 5.2 1.7 Table 4.
Percent of total Rank * Cause of death Number deaths ALL CAUSES 2,448,288 100.0% 1 Heart disease 685,089 28.0% 2 Malignant neoplasms (cancer) 566,902 22.7% 3 Cerebrovascular disease (stroke) 157,689 6.4% 4 Chronic lower respiratory disease 126,382 5.2% 5 Accidents (unintentional injuries) 109,277 4.5% 6 Diabetes mellitus 74,219 3.0% 7 Influenza and pneumonia 65,163 2.7% 8 Alzheimer's disease 63,457 2.6% 9 Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, 42,453 1.7% nephrosis 10 Septicemia 34,069 1.4% * Rank based on number of deaths in 2003.
If a child presents to your office with edema, pleural effusion, and normal blood pressure, think idiopathic nephrosis.
The youngsters died from complications associated with congenital nephrosis, a killer condition that affects the kidneys leaving the body unable to process protein.
A patient with high triglycerides should prompt a search for components of the "metabolic syndrome" and secondary causes, including high dietary fat, high alcohol intake, drugs (steroids, beta-blockers, high-estrogen oral contraceptives), medical conditions (hypothyroidism, nephrosis, renal failure, liver disease, Cushing disease, and lupus), and rare familial dyslipidemias.
Figure 1: Leading Causes of Death (2000) Age-Adjusted Death Rate Per 100,000 Population 1980 * 2000 1) Heart disease 406.2 257.9 2) Malignant neoplasms 209.3 201.0 3) Cerebrovascular diseases 101.9 60.8 4) Chronic lower respiratory disease 29.7 44.3 5) Unintentional injury 47.8 35.5 6) Diabetes mellitus 18.2 25.2 7) Influenza and Pneumonia 21.9 23.7 8) Alzheimer's disease 1.1 18.0 9) Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, nephrosis 11.2 13.5 10) Septicemia 6.0 11.3 Figure 2: Actual Causes of Death (1990) Estimated Number of Deaths Tobacco 400,000 Diet/activity patterns 300,000 Alcohol 100,000 Microbial agents 90,000 Toxic agents 60,000 Firearms 35,000 Sexual behavior 30,000 Motor vehicles 25,000 Illicit use of drugs 20,000
([dagger]) These include STIs other than HIV/AIDS, iron-deficiency anemia among women aged 15-44, breast cancer, ovarian, cervical and uterine cancer, and genitourinary diseases, excluding nephritis and nephrosis.