It is often required to establish multi-channels or leverage lens for the treatment of antler-like renal calculi through percutaneous nephroscopy
, increasing the degree of renal damage as well as the risks of serious intraoperative and postoperative complications.8
Lopez Lopez et al., "Technique and complications of percutaneous nephroscopy
: experience with 557 patients in the supine position," Journal of Urology, vol.
It is the surgeon's standard practice to treat staghorn stone with the combination of rigid and flexible nephroscopy
instead of multiple accesses alternative.
No residual calculi under fluoroscopy and nephroscopy
was performed and ultrasonic images were taken to determine about the stone clearance and residual fragments.
IIIb PC nephrostomy or renephrostomy (drainage loss, bleeding, or the development of a urinoma); Ureteroscopy; Nephroscopy
; Open intervention (due to a postoperative ureteral stricture or parenchymal bleeding); Arteriovenous listula; Perirenal abscesses; Any other intervention under general anesthesia; Clinically significant residual stones after surgery for simple stones and additional interventions (?).
Those with PCN performed for supplementary procedures like percutaneous nephroslithotomy (PCNL), ureteric stent insertion, nephroscopy
and biopsy, were also excluded.
was used to complete the procedure.
readily identified the calculus, which was removed intact using a percutaneous nitinol stone basket.
The patient then was admitted for percutaneous nephroscopy
with the guidance of B ultrasound.
After securing renal access, tract dilatation and placing the working sheath, a rigid nephroscope was inserted under direct vision and Nephroscopy
performed under video endoscopic monitoring.
with removal of stone following nephrostomy for obstructive calculus anuria.