nephron


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nephron

 [nef´ron]
the structural and functional unit of the kidney, each nephron being capable of forming urine by itself. The nephron consists of the renal corpuscle, the proximal convoluted tubule, the descending and ascending limbs of the loop of Henle, the distal convoluted tubule, and the collecting tubule. Each kidney is an aggregation of about a million nephrons. The specific function of the nephron is to remove from the blood plasma certain end products of metabolism, such as urea, uric acid, and creatinine, and also any excess sodium, chloride, and potassium ions. By allowing for reabsorption of water and some electrolytes back into the blood, the nephron also plays a vital role in the maintenance of normal fluid balance in the body.

The nephron is a complex system of arterioles, capillaries, and tubules. Blood is brought to the nephron via the afferent arteriole. As the blood flows through the glomerulus (a network of capillaries), about one-fifth of the plasma is filtered through the glomerular membrane and collects in the malpighian (Bowman's) capsule, which encases the glomerulus. The fluid then passes through the proximal tubule, from there into the loop of Henle, then into the distal tubule, and finally into the collecting tubule. As the fluid is making its tortuous journey through these various tubules, most of its water and some of the solutes are reabsorbed into the blood via the peritubular capillaries. The water and solutes remaining in the tubules become urine.

neph·ron

(nef'ron),
A long, convoluted, tubular structure in the kidney, consisting of the renal corpuscle, the proximal tubule, the nephronic loop, and the distal tubule.
See also: uriniferous tubule.
[G. nephros, kidney]

nephron

(nĕf′rŏn)
n.
The functional excretory unit of the vertebrate kidney that regulates the amount of water in the body and filters wastes from the blood to produce urine.

nephron

The functional anatomic unit of the kidney, which consists of a glomerulus, convoluted tubules and a loop of Henle (nephron loop)

neph·ron

(nef'ron)
A long convoluted tubular structure in the kidney, consisting of the renal corpuscle, the proximal convoluted tubule, the nephronic loop, and the distal convoluted tubule.
[G. nephros, kidney]

nephron

the MALPIGHIAN BODY and the associated tubule of the vertebrate kidney a structure about 5 cm long in humans. In each human kidney there are about one million nephrons, making a total for both kidneys of around fifty miles of tubules. Inflammation of the tubules is called nephritis.

Nephron

The smallest functional unit of the kidney involved in the removal of waste products and excess water from the blood.
References in periodicals archive ?
To help Nephron meet the market demand, the College of Engineering and Computing and the College of Pharmacy have finalized plans to build a fully functional sterile compounding lab at the McNAIR Aerospace Center.
A drug's diuretic effect can be mild or strong, depending on where in the nephron it acts.
CHIP28 water channels are localized in constitutively water-permeable segments of the nephron. J.
The number of nephrons and glomeruli was determined before birth using a biological variation (1).
These biomarkers can be used to distinguish the site of damage in the nephron and, to some extent, determine whether damage is associated with inflammation, leukocyte migration, immune complex (IC) deposition, and so on.
Picken, "Renal tumor with overlapping distal nephron morphology and karyotype," Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, vol.
Previous evidence also showed that cell survival played a key role in ureteric bud branching and nephron formation.[sup][13]
In the kidney, all three NOS isoforms are expressed at various locations along the nephron and are subjected to distinct control mechanisms [18, 29].
Lundstam et al., "Nephron sparing surgery associated with better survival than radical nephrectomy in patients treated for unforeseen benign renal tumors," Urology, vol.
In such cases then immediately carryout intravenous pyelography and followed by post contrast CT scan abdomen for extension and localization of tumor so as to consider nephron sparing surgery can be possible or not10,11, as was seen in our case in which early diagnosis of duplex kidney with lower moiety renal cell carcinoma which has spared the lower moiety pelvi-calyceal system as well as upper moiety pelvi-calyceal system, making nephron sparing surgery possible with good prognosis.
Chronic kidney disease is usually a slow and insidious disease, with continuing irreversible reduction in nephron number and function (Bragman & Skorecki, 2012).