(NA) is a rare benign proliferation in the urinary tract, usually occurring as a result of chronic inflammation, trauma or other similar chronic injuries to the urothelial mucosa.
(7,9) Another papillary/ polypoid lesion that might also enter into the broad differential is the papillary variant of nephrogenic adenoma
, mainly because it is frequently misdiagnosed or misinterpreted.
of the urinary bladder is a rare lesion which could easily be confused with or could easily be misdiagnosed as a number of malignant lesions of the urinary bladder.
The differential diagnosis may be sometimes challenging and includes primarily the urothelial (transitional cell) carcinoma and rarely the nephrogenic adenoma
, the paraganglioma and the carcinoid tumours.[sup.2]
The histological differential diagnosis of paraganglioma includes nested variant of TCC, inverted papilloma and nephrogenic adenoma
. Immunohistochemical analysis is useful in distinguishing paraganglioma from nested variant of TCC.7 Nested variants of TCC express cytokeratin and other epithelial markers.
The benign process which is the most common problem especially in biopsies is the nephrogenic adenoma
. Nephrogenic adenoma
, unlike bladder CCA, is more common in males and is usually small sized lesion.
Several lesions can have an exophytic papillary or polypoid cystoscopic appearance, including papillary urothelial neoplasms, polypoid cystitis, and nephrogenic adenoma
. Although nephrogenic adenomas
occur most commonly in the bladder, they may also develop in the renal pelvis, ureters, and urethra.
is an uncommon lesion of the urinary tract induced by chronic irritation of the vesical mucosa, due to infection, trauma, surgery, calculi, foreign bodies and chemical agents.[sup.1] Nephrogenic adenoma
(also named nephrogenic metaplasia) is a benign entity and a common mimic of adenocarcinoma; this presents a diagnostic challenge in the interpretation of bladder biopsies.[sup.2]
The histologic differential diagnosis of miillerianosis of the urinary bladder encompasses several benign and neoplastic conditions, including cystitis glandularis, urachal remnants, nephrogenic adenoma
, primary adenocarcinomas of the urinary bladder, and secondary spread from a minimal-deviation adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.
Vesical nephrogenic adenoma
is a rare, benign entity that appears most commonly in middle-aged males.
The benign lesions include cystitis cystica, cystitis glandularis, von Brunn nests, nephrogenic adenoma
, mesonephric remnant, intestinal metaplasia, and urachal remnant.
Perhaps the most controversial aspect of nephrogenic adenoma
is its derivation and whether it represents a metaplasia or a benign tumor.