On histological appearance, the effect presented as attenuation of the cortical and nephrogenic
Rybicki, "Biochemical safety profiles of gadolinium-based extracellular contrast agents and nephrogenic
systemic fibrosis," Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol.
metaplasia) is more common in the male in comparison with female with a male to female ratio of 2:1, and it has been reported to occur in a large range of age groups ranging from 4 years to 81 years .
1) Clinicians should not underestimate the related medical hazards of these modalities such as potential carcinogenicity of radiographies and responses to contrast solutions that range from a slight allergic reaction to intense responses such as systemic nephrogenic
2006) Pharmacologic chaperones as a potential treatment for X-linked nephrogenic
Interstitial infiltrate damages the tubules and produces variable clinical manifestations like raised plasma creatinine concentration Fanconi syndrome distal (type I) renal tubular acidosis (RTA) nephrogenic
diabetes insipidus and hypokalemia.
Miscellaneous arthropathies including synovial tumors and foreign body synovitis and nephrogenic
Examples include nephrogenic
diabetes insipidus from aquaporin 2 mutations, vitamin D-resistant rickets from SLC34A3  [solute carrier family 34 (sodium phosphate), member 3] mutations, and mutations in SCNN1B (sodium channel, non-voltage-gated 1, [beta] subunit) or SCNN1G (sodium channel, non-voltage-gated 1, [gamma] subunit) in Liddle syndrome.
systemic fibrosis (NSF), unknown before March 1997 and first described in 2000, is a systemic disorder characterised by widespread tissue fibrosis.
It took four years to diagnose him with nephrogenic
diabetes insipidus - which afflicts just one in 25,000 people in the UK.
Gadolinium use has been linked to onset of nephrogenic
In severe hypercalcemia, multisystem symptoms can be observed as follows: neurologic symptoms: stupor, coma, confusion, and lethargy; gastrointestinal symptoms: constipation, peptic ulcus and pancreatitis, urinary symptoms: nephrolithiasis, renal failure, and nephrogenic
diabetes insipidus (17-20).