Clinical indications for biopsy were subdivided as follows: (i) acute kidney injury (AKI); (ii) asymptomatic urine abnormalities (AUAs); (iii) CKD; (iv) haematuria; (v) hypertension; (vi) nephrotic syndrome (NS)/nephrotic-range proteinuria; (vii) nephritic syndrome
; (viii) nephritic NS; and (ix) unknown.
Steroid-resistant nephritic syndrome
is the most common cause of severe hypertension admitted to a paediatric renal service in Durban.
Different patterns of presentation include asymptomatic haematuria and proteinuria, acute nephritic syndrome
, nephrotic syndrome (NS), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN).
Prognostic significance of the early course of minimal change nephritic syndrome
: report of the International Study of Kidney Disease in Children.
In the present study, the Pattern of glomerular diseases presenting with haematuria, acute onset of oedema, red cell cast in urine, oliguria and mild-to-moderate hypertension (nephritic syndrome
features) were analysed.
Background: Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is an autoimmune disease and the leading cause of adult nephritic syndrome
. HLA-DQA1 had been identified to be associated with IMN in Europeans and the result was replicated in Chinese Han population.
We performed renal biopsy of all patients who presented with; nephrotic syndrome, non-nephrotic range significant proteinuria, rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, acute unexplained renal failure, sub-acute renal failure of unknown cause and nephritic syndrome
It can present as nephrotic syndrome (NS), nephritic syndrome
, rapidly progressive renal failure (RPRF), acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD), macroscopic hematuria (MH), as well as isolated proteinuria or hematuria.
The clinical presentation of lupus nephritis is highly variable, ranging from asymptomatic hematuria and/or proteinuria to frank nephritic syndrome
to rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis with loss of renal function.17 Lupus nephritis, which was mainly glomerulonephritis was present in 75.4% of our patients, out of which 24.6% had class IV lupus nephritis, and 18.0% had full-blown nephritic syndrome
The principal causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children comprise the following: disruptive uropathy, or dysplastic kidneys, reflux nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis as a alternative of childhood nephritic syndrome
polycystic kidney disease, autosomal-recessive and autosomal-dominant varieties.
In the 80's, the clinical spectrum of HIV-associated renal disease was described as nephrotic and nephritic syndrome
, acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and non-nephrotic proteinuria (14).
The patient with LN is likely to present with nephritic syndrome
(oliguria, minimal proteinuria, haematuria, hypertension and azotaemia) or with features of nephrotic syndrome (anasarca, heavy proteinuria and hypoalbuminaemia).