To date, there have been studies investigating the potential of several biomarkers in Turkish patients with AD such as proinflammatory cytokines (23-25), neopterin
(23), resistin (24) as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, complement factor H (25), and leptin (26).
Further evaluation of HPA occurring as a secondary consequence of a defect in the metabolism or regeneration of BH4 is done through analysis of urine or blood neopterin
, biopterin and measurement of DHPR activity.
production and tryptophan degradation in advanced Parkinson's disease".
CSF CXCL10, CXCL9, and neopterin
as candidate prognostic biomarkers for HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.
We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), neopterin
, pro-adrenomedullin (pro-ADM) and the other infection markers to predict bacteremia in patients with SIRS, sepsis and severe sepsis/septic shock.
(2014) Increased platelet oxidative metabolism, blood oxidative stress and neopterin
levels after ultra-endurance exercise.
Diagnostic and prognostic value of inflammatory parameters including neopterin
in the setting of pneumonia, COPD, and acute exacerbations.
Other independent risk factors, such as elevated urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor plasma level, interleukin 6, pentraxin-3, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, cell-free DNA, Mac-2 binding protein, cerebrospinal fluid neopterin
concentration, and urine GATA-3 mRNA level, have been reported in the literature (14,32,35,40-42).
Utility of measuring serum levels of anti PGL-1 antibody, neopterin
and c-reactive protein in monitoring leprosy patients during multidrug treatment and reactions.
Other molecules studied as biomarkers include adrenomedullin, provasopressin, natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP), endotelin-1, neopterin
, proadrenomedullin (proADM), and presepsin (CD-14).
In particular, diminished breakdown of phenylalanine (Phe) to tyrosine (Tyr) has been shown to correlate with the expression of neopterin
, as well as with HIV-RNA levels and CD4 counts in HIV-infected individuals [156, 157].
Selvaggi et al., "Probiotics differently affect gut-associated lymphoid tissue indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase mRNA and cerebrospinal fluid neopterin
levels in antiretroviral-treated HIV-1 infected patients: a pilot study," International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol.