neonatal mortality

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Related to neonatal mortality: postneonatal mortality

neonatal mortality

the statistical rate of infant death during the first 28 days after live birth, expressed as the number of such deaths per 1000 live births in a specific geographic area or institution in a given time.


(mor-tal'it-e) [ mortal]
1. The condition of being mortal.
2. The number of deaths in a population. In the U.S. about 2,300,000 people die each year. The most common causes of death, according to the National Center for Health Statistics, are (in descending order) heart disease, cancer, stroke, chronic obstructive lung disease, accidents, pneumonia and influenza, diabetes mellitus, suicide, kidney failure, cirrhosis, and other chronic liver diseases. The causes of death vary by age group: accidents are the most common cause of death among infants, children, adolescents, and young adults; cancers are the most common cause of death among people ages 45 to 64. Heart disease predominates after age 65. See: table

all-cause mortality

All of the deaths that occur in a population, regardless of the cause. It is measured in clinical trials and used as an indicator of the safety or hazard of an intervention.
See: disease-specific mortality

disease-specific mortality

All of the deaths that occur in a population from a specific illness. In clinical trials that study the effect of a treatment on that illness, it is used as a measure of the treatment's effectiveness.
See: all-cause mortality

infant mortality

The number of deaths of children younger than 1 year of age per 1000 live births per year.

neonatal mortality

The death of a newborn.

perinatal mortality

The number of fetal deaths plus the number of deaths of infants younger than 7 days of age per 1000 live births per year.
Worldwide, 50% of all deaths under the age of five are caused by infectious diseases.SOURCE: World Health Organization, The World Health Report 2005.
RankCauseNumbers (thousands per year)% of all deaths
1Neonatal causes3,91037
2Acute respiratory infections2,02719
3Diarrheal diseases1,76217
Other causes1,02210


pertaining to the period immediately after birth; the duration varies between species; in humans refers to the first four weeks of life; in animals the first week seems appropriate. Some neonatal disorders are listed in entries below. Others are listed elsewhere under titles specific to their anatomic location, including hyaline membrane disease, respiratory distress syndrome.

neonatal cardiac murmur
is observed in foals and most disappear before the fifth day. Persistence after that time may suggest valvular dysfunction. Many congenital murmurs are functional and cause no signs of disease.
neonatal diarrhea
see undifferentiated diarrhea of the newborn.
neonatal distress
see neonatal maladjustment syndrome (below).
neonatal edema
usually caused by obstruction to lymphatic flow by defective development of lymph drainage system.
neonatal hyaline membrane disease
see hyaline membrane disease.
neonatal hyperbilirubinemia
see neonatal jaundice (below).
neonatal hypoglycemia
a metabolic disease of newborn piglets caused by restriction of food intake. Clinical signs include weakness, shivering, hypothermia and terminal convulsions.
neonatal isoerythrolysis
see alloimmune hemolytic anemia of the newborn.
neonatal isoimmune purpura
see neonatal thrombocytopenic purpura (below).
neonatal jaundice
is an important clinical sign in foals because of the possibility of alloimmune hemolytic anemia. Some cases of benign, physiological jaundice also occur in foals. There is jaundice but no other clinical or pathological abnormality. Called also neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.
neonatal maladjustment syndrome
a disease of newborn thoroughbred foals caused by premature severance of the umbilical cord in assisted foalings and by hypoxia due to other causes. The foals may be normal for some hours after birth. Clinical signs include aimless wandering, apparent blindness, and convulsions including a sound like a dog barking. Called also barkers and wanderers.
neonatal mortality
death in the neonatal group.
neonatal neoplasm
occurs rarely. Lymphosarcoma, benign and malignant melanoma and myeloid leukosis are recorded. Sporadic bovine leukosis, manifested by many subcutaneous tumors, is the most common form of the disease.
neonatal ophthalmia
see ophthalmia neonatorum.
neonatal septicemia
many bacteria, which are not widely invasive in older animals, can cause septicemia in neonates because of their immunological immaturity; common examples are Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., streptococci, e.g. S. suis.
neonatal spasticity
an inherited disease of calves which are normal at birth but soon develop a susceptibility to tetanic convulsions when stimulated. See also neuraxial edema.
neonatal streptococcal infection
occurs in all species, but is especially important in piglets and foals. Bacteremia and septicemia may result in the animal's death or the development of arthritis, endocarditis, meningitis or ophthalmitis. Causative bacteria are: foals—Streptococcus zooepidemicus (S. pyogenes equi); piglets—S. suis types 1 and 2, S. equisimilis; calves—S. pyogenes; lambs—S. faecalis and group C streptococci.
neonatal thrombocytopenic purpura
a severe bleeding disease in piglets a few days old which have drunk colostrum containing antiplatelet antibody from their alloimmune dam.
neonatal vigor
amount of physical activity displayed by the newborn animal; an indication of the potential viability of the patient.
References in periodicals archive ?
s[11] observation of an increase in neonatal mortality in LMICs with the upscaling of ANSs and differs from the conclusions of Azad and Costello, [10] who questioned whether ANSs improve neonatal mortality.
While this comprehensive and very well conducted review and meta-analysis highlights the complexity of balancing stillbirth risk against neonatal mortality risk, the limitations of the study are too substantial to allow for any change in current practice.
Data come from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted between 1990 and 2014 which include various socio-demographic and health indicators including neonatal mortality, births attended by skilled health personnel and maternal mortality ratios (MMRs--for selected surveys).
Generalized estimating equations were used to compare neonatal mortality across groups.
Keywords: Early neonatal mortality, late neonatal mortality, modified wigglesworth classification, stillbirth, perinatal mortality
10 Neonatal mortality causes vary by country, and depends upon the availability and the provision of healthcare services because neonatal mortality has intimate relation to these factors.
The infant mortality and neonatal mortality rate increased drastically and that is significant," he says.
According to the report, a study of French births found the distance to an obstetric unit did not increase neonatal mortality risk except for distances greater than 27.
Approximately 40% of our < 5-year-old mortality is made up of neonatal deaths, therefore if SA is going to effectively reduce < 5 mortality, it will have to substantially reduce its neonatal mortality rate.
babies may experience a higher neonatal mortality rate (deaths within the first month of life) or higher post-neonatal mortality rate (deaths in months one through twelve) than do babies of similar birth weight and gestational age in other countries.
The neonatal mortality however was only slightly reduced from 17.

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