neonatal mortality

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Related to neonatal mortality: postneonatal mortality

neonatal mortality

the statistical rate of infant death during the first 28 days after live birth, expressed as the number of such deaths per 1000 live births in a specific geographic area or institution in a given time.


(mor-tal'it-e) [ mortal]
1. The condition of being mortal.
2. The number of deaths in a population. In the U.S. about 2,300,000 people die each year. The most common causes of death, according to the National Center for Health Statistics, are (in descending order) heart disease, cancer, stroke, chronic obstructive lung disease, accidents, pneumonia and influenza, diabetes mellitus, suicide, kidney failure, cirrhosis, and other chronic liver diseases. The causes of death vary by age group: accidents are the most common cause of death among infants, children, adolescents, and young adults; cancers are the most common cause of death among people ages 45 to 64. Heart disease predominates after age 65. See: table

all-cause mortality

All of the deaths that occur in a population, regardless of the cause. It is measured in clinical trials and used as an indicator of the safety or hazard of an intervention.
See: disease-specific mortality

disease-specific mortality

All of the deaths that occur in a population from a specific illness. In clinical trials that study the effect of a treatment on that illness, it is used as a measure of the treatment's effectiveness.
See: all-cause mortality

infant mortality

The number of deaths of children younger than 1 year of age per 1000 live births per year.

neonatal mortality

The death of a newborn.

perinatal mortality

The number of fetal deaths plus the number of deaths of infants younger than 7 days of age per 1000 live births per year.
Worldwide, 50% of all deaths under the age of five are caused by infectious diseases.SOURCE: World Health Organization, The World Health Report 2005.
RankCauseNumbers (thousands per year)% of all deaths
1Neonatal causes3,91037
2Acute respiratory infections2,02719
3Diarrheal diseases1,76217
Other causes1,02210


pertaining to the period immediately after birth; the duration varies between species; in humans refers to the first four weeks of life; in animals the first week seems appropriate. Some neonatal disorders are listed in entries below. Others are listed elsewhere under titles specific to their anatomic location, including hyaline membrane disease, respiratory distress syndrome.

neonatal cardiac murmur
is observed in foals and most disappear before the fifth day. Persistence after that time may suggest valvular dysfunction. Many congenital murmurs are functional and cause no signs of disease.
neonatal diarrhea
see undifferentiated diarrhea of the newborn.
neonatal distress
see neonatal maladjustment syndrome (below).
neonatal edema
usually caused by obstruction to lymphatic flow by defective development of lymph drainage system.
neonatal hyaline membrane disease
see hyaline membrane disease.
neonatal hyperbilirubinemia
see neonatal jaundice (below).
neonatal hypoglycemia
a metabolic disease of newborn piglets caused by restriction of food intake. Clinical signs include weakness, shivering, hypothermia and terminal convulsions.
neonatal isoerythrolysis
see alloimmune hemolytic anemia of the newborn.
neonatal isoimmune purpura
see neonatal thrombocytopenic purpura (below).
neonatal jaundice
is an important clinical sign in foals because of the possibility of alloimmune hemolytic anemia. Some cases of benign, physiological jaundice also occur in foals. There is jaundice but no other clinical or pathological abnormality. Called also neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.
neonatal maladjustment syndrome
a disease of newborn thoroughbred foals caused by premature severance of the umbilical cord in assisted foalings and by hypoxia due to other causes. The foals may be normal for some hours after birth. Clinical signs include aimless wandering, apparent blindness, and convulsions including a sound like a dog barking. Called also barkers and wanderers.
neonatal mortality
death in the neonatal group.
neonatal neoplasm
occurs rarely. Lymphosarcoma, benign and malignant melanoma and myeloid leukosis are recorded. Sporadic bovine leukosis, manifested by many subcutaneous tumors, is the most common form of the disease.
neonatal ophthalmia
see ophthalmia neonatorum.
neonatal septicemia
many bacteria, which are not widely invasive in older animals, can cause septicemia in neonates because of their immunological immaturity; common examples are Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., streptococci, e.g. S. suis.
neonatal spasticity
an inherited disease of calves which are normal at birth but soon develop a susceptibility to tetanic convulsions when stimulated. See also neuraxial edema.
neonatal streptococcal infection
occurs in all species, but is especially important in piglets and foals. Bacteremia and septicemia may result in the animal's death or the development of arthritis, endocarditis, meningitis or ophthalmitis. Causative bacteria are: foals—Streptococcus zooepidemicus (S. pyogenes equi); piglets—S. suis types 1 and 2, S. equisimilis; calves—S. pyogenes; lambs—S. faecalis and group C streptococci.
neonatal thrombocytopenic purpura
a severe bleeding disease in piglets a few days old which have drunk colostrum containing antiplatelet antibody from their alloimmune dam.
neonatal vigor
amount of physical activity displayed by the newborn animal; an indication of the potential viability of the patient.
References in periodicals archive ?
Nonetheless, the findings suggest that eliminating user fees "led to substantial increases in facility-based deliveries" and were consistent "with a meaningful reduction in neonatal mortality.
In the present study, we observed excess risk of 102% for spontaneous abortion, 84% for stillbirth, 51% for neonatal mortality, 35% for infant mortality, and a 53-g reduction in birth weight.
There was no statistically significant difference in neonatal mortality between the two types of hospital for 22 of the 26 years after adjusting for risk factors (Figure 1 bottom and Appendix 2).
Between 1991-1995 and 2001-2005, rates of neonatal mortality, postneonatal mortality and SIDS in urban areas (all neighbourhood income quintiles combined) declined by 3%, 38% and 57%, respectively.
However, the neonatal mortality rate dropped by 87 percent, early neonatal mortality rate dropped by 91 percent, and late neonatal mortality by 58 percent between 1975 and 2011".
This study also was limited in that it did not include information on several variables that could affect rates of stillbirth, neonatal mortality, and infant mortality; such as the mothers' alcohol intake or the dosage levels of their SSRIs, Dr.
Qatar's neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and under-five mortality rates have also dropped over the past five years, it said.
Summary: Neonatal mortality rate saw a significant decrease down from 27 cases per 1000 live births to 18.
The death of any child is a tragedy and although it is encouraging that neonatal mortality rates continue to fall there is still more to do.
The quality of perinatal care is the main factor in decreasing maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates (1).
The authors suggest that this increased neonatal mortality is due to "decreased obstetric intervention" in the form of ultrasound, electronic fetal heart rate monitoring, fetal acid-base assessment, labor induction, and cesarean delivery.
The second strategy of reproductive health seeks to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality and the fertility rate through improving the quality of health services and the training environment in this area.