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familial onset of symptomatic hypoglycemia during infancy, with persistently low blood glucose; a variant form [MIM*240800] is induced by leucine with hyperinsulinism and variable mental retardation.
an abnormally low level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The condition may result from an excessive rate of removal of glucose from the blood or from decreased secretion of glucose into the blood. Overproduction of insulin from the islets of Langerhans or an overdose of exogenous insulin can lead to increased utilization of glucose, so that glucose is removed from the blood at an accelerated rate. Tumors of the islands of Langerhans can increase the production of insulin and result in rapid removal of glucose from the blood. Because the liver is the source of most of the glucose entering the blood while an animal is fasting, damage to the liver cells can result in impaired ability to convert glycogen into glucose. If secretion of the adrenocortical hormones, especially the glucocorticoids, is deficient, the protein precursors of glucose are not available and the blood glucose level drops as the liver's glycogen supply is depleted.
In animals the clinical picture of hypoglycemia includes muscle weakness, lethargy and recumbency. Ketosis and acetonuria are usual. Profound hypoglycemia or a very rapid fall in blood sugar causes convulsions and final coma.
hunting dog hypoglycemia
a stress-related syndrome seen in dogs that are fasted before a hunt, later experiencing exhaustion and hypoglycemic seizures.
occurs in young puppies, mainly of toy breeds, causing weakness, muscle tremors, ataxia and seizures. Often precipitated by excitement, anorexia, hypothermia or gastrointestinal disorders. The cause is unclear, but believed to be incomplete development of metabolic pathways for glucose production. Affected puppies usually become normal with maturity.
orally administered leucine causes a significant further hypoglycemia in patients with an existing hyperinsulinism due to islet cell tumor.
see neonatal hypoglycemia.
the hypoglycemia induced by insulin fails to return to the normal level in the required time, usually because of hyperinsulinism, or hypopituitarism or hypoadrenalism.
pertaining to the period immediately after birth; the duration varies between species; in humans refers to the first four weeks of life; in animals the first week seems appropriate. Some neonatal disorders are listed in entries below. Others are listed elsewhere under titles specific to their anatomic location, including hyaline membrane disease, respiratory distress syndrome.
neonatal cardiac murmur
is observed in foals and most disappear before the fifth day. Persistence after that time may suggest valvular dysfunction. Many congenital murmurs are functional and cause no signs of disease.
see undifferentiated diarrhea of the newborn.
see neonatal maladjustment syndrome (below).
usually caused by obstruction to lymphatic flow by defective development of lymph drainage system.
neonatal hyaline membrane disease
see hyaline membrane disease.
see neonatal jaundice (below).
a metabolic disease of newborn piglets caused by restriction of food intake. Clinical signs include weakness, shivering, hypothermia and terminal convulsions.
see alloimmune hemolytic anemia of the newborn.
neonatal isoimmune purpura
see neonatal thrombocytopenic purpura (below).
is an important clinical sign in foals because of the possibility of alloimmune hemolytic anemia. Some cases of benign, physiological jaundice also occur in foals. There is jaundice but no other clinical or pathological abnormality. Called also neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.
neonatal maladjustment syndrome
a disease of newborn thoroughbred foals caused by premature severance of the umbilical cord in assisted foalings and by hypoxia due to other causes. The foals may be normal for some hours after birth. Clinical signs include aimless wandering, apparent blindness, and convulsions including a sound like a dog barking. Called also barkers and wanderers.
death in the neonatal group.
occurs rarely. Lymphosarcoma, benign and malignant melanoma and myeloid leukosis are recorded. Sporadic bovine leukosis, manifested by many subcutaneous tumors, is the most common form of the disease.
see ophthalmia neonatorum.
many bacteria, which are not widely invasive in older animals, can cause septicemia in neonates because of their immunological immaturity; common examples are Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., streptococci, e.g. S. suis.
an inherited disease of calves which are normal at birth but soon develop a susceptibility to tetanic convulsions when stimulated. See also neuraxial edema.
neonatal streptococcal infection
occurs in all species, but is especially important in piglets and foals. Bacteremia and septicemia may result in the animal's death or the development of arthritis, endocarditis, meningitis or ophthalmitis. Causative bacteria are: foals—Streptococcus zooepidemicus (S. pyogenes equi); piglets—S. suis types 1 and 2, S. equisimilis; calves—S. pyogenes; lambs—S. faecalis and group C streptococci.
neonatal thrombocytopenic purpura
a severe bleeding disease in piglets a few days old which have drunk colostrum containing antiplatelet antibody from their alloimmune dam.
amount of physical activity displayed by the newborn animal; an indication of the potential viability of the patient.