neonatal hypoglycemia

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ne·o·na·tal hy·po·gly·ce·mi·a

familial onset of symptomatic hypoglycemia during infancy, with persistently low blood glucose; a variant form [MIM*240800] is induced by leucine with hyperinsulinism and variable mental retardation.


an abnormally low level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The condition may result from an excessive rate of removal of glucose from the blood or from decreased secretion of glucose into the blood. Overproduction of insulin from the islets of Langerhans or an overdose of exogenous insulin can lead to increased utilization of glucose, so that glucose is removed from the blood at an accelerated rate. Tumors of the islands of Langerhans can increase the production of insulin and result in rapid removal of glucose from the blood. Because the liver is the source of most of the glucose entering the blood while an animal is fasting, damage to the liver cells can result in impaired ability to convert glycogen into glucose. If secretion of the adrenocortical hormones, especially the glucocorticoids, is deficient, the protein precursors of glucose are not available and the blood glucose level drops as the liver's glycogen supply is depleted.
In animals the clinical picture of hypoglycemia includes muscle weakness, lethargy and recumbency. Ketosis and acetonuria are usual. Profound hypoglycemia or a very rapid fall in blood sugar causes convulsions and final coma.

hunting dog hypoglycemia
a stress-related syndrome seen in dogs that are fasted before a hunt, later experiencing exhaustion and hypoglycemic seizures.
juvenile hypoglycemia
occurs in young puppies, mainly of toy breeds, causing weakness, muscle tremors, ataxia and seizures. Often precipitated by excitement, anorexia, hypothermia or gastrointestinal disorders. The cause is unclear, but believed to be incomplete development of metabolic pathways for glucose production. Affected puppies usually become normal with maturity.
leucine-induced hypoglycemia
orally administered leucine causes a significant further hypoglycemia in patients with an existing hyperinsulinism due to islet cell tumor.
neonatal hypoglycemia
see neonatal hypoglycemia.
hypoglycemia unresponsiveness
the hypoglycemia induced by insulin fails to return to the normal level in the required time, usually because of hyperinsulinism, or hypopituitarism or hypoadrenalism.


pertaining to the period immediately after birth; the duration varies between species; in humans refers to the first four weeks of life; in animals the first week seems appropriate. Some neonatal disorders are listed in entries below. Others are listed elsewhere under titles specific to their anatomic location, including hyaline membrane disease, respiratory distress syndrome.

neonatal cardiac murmur
is observed in foals and most disappear before the fifth day. Persistence after that time may suggest valvular dysfunction. Many congenital murmurs are functional and cause no signs of disease.
neonatal diarrhea
see undifferentiated diarrhea of the newborn.
neonatal distress
see neonatal maladjustment syndrome (below).
neonatal edema
usually caused by obstruction to lymphatic flow by defective development of lymph drainage system.
neonatal hyaline membrane disease
see hyaline membrane disease.
neonatal hyperbilirubinemia
see neonatal jaundice (below).
neonatal hypoglycemia
a metabolic disease of newborn piglets caused by restriction of food intake. Clinical signs include weakness, shivering, hypothermia and terminal convulsions.
neonatal isoerythrolysis
see alloimmune hemolytic anemia of the newborn.
neonatal isoimmune purpura
see neonatal thrombocytopenic purpura (below).
neonatal jaundice
is an important clinical sign in foals because of the possibility of alloimmune hemolytic anemia. Some cases of benign, physiological jaundice also occur in foals. There is jaundice but no other clinical or pathological abnormality. Called also neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.
neonatal maladjustment syndrome
a disease of newborn thoroughbred foals caused by premature severance of the umbilical cord in assisted foalings and by hypoxia due to other causes. The foals may be normal for some hours after birth. Clinical signs include aimless wandering, apparent blindness, and convulsions including a sound like a dog barking. Called also barkers and wanderers.
neonatal mortality
death in the neonatal group.
neonatal neoplasm
occurs rarely. Lymphosarcoma, benign and malignant melanoma and myeloid leukosis are recorded. Sporadic bovine leukosis, manifested by many subcutaneous tumors, is the most common form of the disease.
neonatal ophthalmia
see ophthalmia neonatorum.
neonatal septicemia
many bacteria, which are not widely invasive in older animals, can cause septicemia in neonates because of their immunological immaturity; common examples are Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., streptococci, e.g. S. suis.
neonatal spasticity
an inherited disease of calves which are normal at birth but soon develop a susceptibility to tetanic convulsions when stimulated. See also neuraxial edema.
neonatal streptococcal infection
occurs in all species, but is especially important in piglets and foals. Bacteremia and septicemia may result in the animal's death or the development of arthritis, endocarditis, meningitis or ophthalmitis. Causative bacteria are: foals—Streptococcus zooepidemicus (S. pyogenes equi); piglets—S. suis types 1 and 2, S. equisimilis; calves—S. pyogenes; lambs—S. faecalis and group C streptococci.
neonatal thrombocytopenic purpura
a severe bleeding disease in piglets a few days old which have drunk colostrum containing antiplatelet antibody from their alloimmune dam.
neonatal vigor
amount of physical activity displayed by the newborn animal; an indication of the potential viability of the patient.
References in periodicals archive ?
1]2-1 phenotype in diabetic pregnant women may herald severe maternal hyperglycemia and neonatal hypoglycemia.
Brain damage caused by neonatal hypoglycemia is a function of several variables, including the degree of hypoglycemia, the duration of hypoglycemia, and the blood circulation to the brain.
1c] concentrations, reducing macrosomia, and preventing neonatal hypoglycemia in a randomized open-label clinical trial involving women with GDM whose levels of glycemia required pharmacologic treatment (42).
HI can also occur in the setting of perinatal stress such as birth asphyxia, maternal toxemia, prematurity, or intrauterine growth retardation, resulting in prolonged neonatal hypoglycemia.
Furthermore, the risk of drug-induced neonatal hypoglycemia when the drugs are used close to birth appears to be low.
Hyperglycemia in the latter portion of pregnancy is associated with major neonatal toxicity: neonatal hypoglycemia (from hyperinsulinemia), hyperbilirubinemia, hypocalcemia, polycythemia (may involve thrombosis in the neonate), and respiratory distress syndrome (from inhibition of pulmonary maturation by fetal hyperinsulinemia).
A 2002 study of 107 type 2 diabetic pregnancies concluded that neonatal hypoglycemia correlated with maternal hyperglycemia in labor, not with maternal Hb[A.
Risks that were less often discussed (by 20%-40% of respondents) were deep venous thrombosis, prolonged operative time with cesarean section, wound infection or dehiscence after cesarean section, birth trauma, neonatal hypoglycemia, and increased overall perinatal morbidity.
There were no congenital anomalies or neonatal hypoglycemia.
These included similar rates of macrosomia, neonatal hypoglycemia, neonatal ICU admission, lung problems and need for ventilatory support, fetal anomalies, and mortality (N.
Concerns about teratogenicity stem from suggestions that the earlier sulfonylureic drugs may have caused neonatal hypoglycemia and fetal anomalies.
Yet there was no difference in the rates of macrosomia, dystocia, neonatal hypoglycemia, mortality rate, or length of stay in the hospital between the screened and nonscreened groups.

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