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Nematocyst compliment represented by microbasic b-mastigophores of two different sizes: (i) A-type: 5.
When nematocysts were deactivated, the pompano failed to discriminate between clams with and without hydroids, suggesting that nematocysts are responsible for deterring this predator.
I would like to thank Robert Burn and Melanie Mackenzie for their assistance with collecting specimens, Claudia Mills for the many emails about these animals, Jeanette Watson for teaching me how to examine the nematocysts, John Kuo for kindly sending me his paper on Heterozostera, Hugh Kirkman for confirming the species of seagrass present at the Jawbone and, finally, Leon Altoff for kneeling for long periods in very cold water in the middle of winter to capture images.
When attacking anemones, shrimp were prone to be stung with nematocysts and usually chose smaller, less harmful anemones.
Closer examination shows a more distinct association between nematocyst batteries and the FMRF-IR network, similar to that found in tentacles by Anderson et al.
Given their location, these sensory cells could potentially serve a varied assortment of sensory functions given the important role of the tentacles in feeding and defense (including nematocyst discharge) and in stabilizing the bell while swimming (Shorten et al.
2003), and morphology of the nematocyst capsule provides the only morphological evidence for monophyly of the hexacorallian order Actiniaria (Reft and Daly, 2012).
Phyilosomas may be capable of defending themselves against any types of nematocyst sting, and it is likely that they have evolved to utilize venomous jellyfish as a food in the open sea, where food may be scarce.