The cluster group (Cluster 2) that has the most diffuse neurocognitive deficits in attention, memory and other factors was found to have significantly higher average negative symptom
score than the other clusters.
The symptoms affected patients' lives, and the patients used either positive or negative symptom
management strategies, leading to either positive or negative results during symptom management.
Schizophrenia patients with acute illness were found to be significantly different from patients with chronic illness on the scale of positive and negative symptom
The outcomes included discontinuation of all-cause treatment (risk ratio, 0.7), at least one psychiatric hospitalization (risk ratio, 0.74), involvement in school or work (risk ratio, 1.13), total symptom severity (standardized mean difference [SMD], −0.32), and positive and negative symptom
severity (SMD, −0.22 and −0.28, respectively).
In addition, the measurement of improvements in patient status after intervention is not easy, because a small concomitant enhancement in depressive symptoms may lead to confound the interpretation of improvement on negative symptom
scales (Arango, Buchanan, Kirkpatrick, & Carpenter, 2004).
We assessed psychopathological and clinical conditions as well as general functioning using the Positive and Negative Symptom
Scale total score , Clinical Global Impression-Severity , Global Assessment of Functioning Scale , and, after HYPO onset, Hypochondriasis Y-BOCS Scale .
Further, based on accumulating evidence [20-21] that negative symptoms
are not unidimensional and are best represented by two facets--expression, which captures emotion, expression, and speech; and motivation and pleasure, which captures motivation and pleasure for engaging in social, vocational, and recreational activities--we divided the negative symptom
items from Wallwork et al.
Nowadays, psychosocial strategies are considered a substantial part of treatment for schizophrenia; more so considering the limited effectiveness of drugs in improving negative symptoms
. (1) Although these symptoms are not as prominent as positive ones, over the long term they are the best indicators of incapacity related to the illness, as they interfere with the patient's ability to function in daily life.
The specific symptoms of schizophrenia are delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking and speech, grossly disorganized or abnormal motor behaviour (including catatonia) and negative symptoms
Part III, "Innovations in Group and Whole Team Interventions," contains essays on Group Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy for paranoia, Team-Based Cognitive Therapy for distress and problematic behavior with both positive and negative symptoms
, and Long-Term Supportive Psychotherapy in a team setting.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that usually manifests as a predominant negative symptoms
(PNS), severe psychotic illness with onset in early adulthood, characterised by bizarre delusions, auditory hallucinations, thought disorder, strange behaviour and progressive deterioration in personal, domestic, social and occupational competence, all occurring in clear consciousness.