negative reinforcer


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Related to negative reinforcer: positive reinforcer, Continuous Reinforcement

negative reinforcer

(in psychology) a stimulus that, when presented immediately after occurrence of a particular behavior, will decrease the rate of occurrence of the behavior.

re·in·for·cer

, positive reinforcer , negative reinforcer (rē'in-fōrs'ĕr, pozi-tiv, negă-tiv)
In conditioning, a pleasant or satisfaction-yielding (positive reinforcer) or painful or unsatisfying (negative reinforcer) stimulus, object, or stimulus event that is obtained upon the performance of a desired or predetermined operant.
See also: reinforcement (3)
Synonym(s): reward.
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References in periodicals archive ?
All seven participants pressed the pedal to terminate the tone on 100 % of presentations in the pre-assessment, indicating that the tone functioned as a negative reinforcer for all of the participants.
However, Skinner's (1953) definition of punishment as the response-contingent presentation of a negative reinforcer or the removal of a positive reinforcer is not unequivocally committed to a theory of punishment exclusively in terms of the occurrence and strengthening of competing responses.
But we define punishment without appealing to any behavioral effect: punishment occurs whenever an action is followed either by a loss of positive or a gain of negative reinforcers.
Another type of avoidance behavior that serves as a negative reinforcer for substance use is often referred to as "escaping reality.
With no further comment on the issue, Staats (1996b) prepares the reader for his own definition of positive and negative reinforcers by simply stating that the traditional concept of reinforcement has been criticized for circularity.
It is often difficult to determine just who is in charge on any given decision and to determine patterns of authority and control over positive and negative reinforcers.
The colorful, continuously changing visual content combined with audio consisting of voice and/or music suggested that the videos would have strong reinforcing effects without creating the discomfort or stress typical of negative reinforcers (cf.
1990), escape extinction (Lerman & Iwata, 1996), the use of positive reinforcers to compete with negative reinforcers (Harding et al.
lights, Kish, 1966; negative reinforcers, Jerome, Moody, Connor, and Ryan, 1958).