For instance, (21, 40) > 22 represents that the mean rank of the effect sizes of "negative reinforcer" and " token" were significantly higher than that of "withdrawal of positive reinforcer", and that the mean rank of effect sizes of "negative reinforcer" was higher than that of "token", but the difference was not significant.
Giving negative reinforcers: Giving aversive stimulus including a reprimand; a stern "No"; icing on facial area contingent on bruxism; over-correction; positive practice overcorrection; loud noise; response blocking; shock; electric stimulation (Self-Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System); suppression (sharply saying "No" and briefly holding the part of the child's body when the child performed self-stimulation); requiring the child to stand up and sit on the floor five to ten times contingent on an inappropriate behavior.
However, Skinner's (1953) definition of punishment as the response-contingent presentation of a negative reinforcer or the removal of a positive reinforcer is not unequivocally committed to a theory of punishment exclusively in terms of the occurrence and strengthening of competing responses.
But we define punishment without appealing to any behavioral effect: punishment occurs whenever an action is followed either by a loss of positive or a gain of negative reinforcers. This definition says nothing about the effect of a punisher on the action that produces it.
In summary, behavior therapists working with people who abuse substances will want to evaluate what negative reinforcers
are maintaining the substance-use patterns.
For example, it may be that a critical feature of psychologically inflexible processes is the propensity for behavior to be more under the control of immediate negative reinforcers
over long-term positive reinforcers.
The above principles are based on the hypothesis of a personal history of positive and negative reinforcers
and, inherently, on a complex set of expectations derived form them.
These so-called negative reinforcers
have a subliminal effect on how satisfied the staff is with its work environment.
It is often difficult to determine just who is in charge on any given decision and to determine patterns of authority and control over positive and negative reinforcers
. As Cyert and March (1963) put it: The authority structures in complex institutions like universities are often ambiguou ...
Currently, the treatment options include direct manipulations of the amount of negative reinforcement provided (Peck et al., 1996), the reinforcement of mands (Wacker et al., 1990), escape extinction (Lerman & Iwata, 1996), the use of positive reinforcers to compete with negative reinforcers
(Harding et al., 1999), manipulation of the establishing operation via fixed-time schedules of reinforcement (Vollmer, Marcus, & Ringdahl, 1995), and various punishment procedures combined with any of the procedures mentioned above (e.g., Fisher et al., 1993).
The colorful, continuously changing visual content combined with audio consisting of voice and/or music suggested that the videos would have strong reinforcing effects without creating the discomfort or stress typical of negative reinforcers
To begin with, large within-session decreases in responding are reported when non-ingestive stimuli serve as reinforcers (e.g., lights, Kish, 1966; negative reinforcers
, Jerome, Moody, Connor, and Ryan, 1958).