education) in the origins of great scientists, and it was he who first introduced the nature-nurture issue
as the fundamental question in understanding these relationships.
These three aspects of the nature-nurture issue can be easily mapped onto a scheme of three phases, which Dewey and Bentley (1949) argued underlie the progressive development of a theory.
The nature-nurture issue is destined to be a recurrent issue in our collective consciousness as we try to nurture our youths to the fullest of their potential.
Substantially updated and expanded from previous editions, this third edition continues to emphasize the philosophical and historical bases of the key conceptual issues in the field, the centrality of the nature-nurture issue
, the importance of understanding the dynamics between continuity and discontinuity across the life span, the ways in which stances on the nature-nurture and continuity-discontinuity issues frame theories of human development, and on the associations among philosophy, concepts, theories, methods, and applications of developmental science.
The scope is wide, from the use of animal models for human behaviour, through the nature-nurture issue
and motivation concepts, to functional questions.
Our intent in this concluding part of the special issue is to (a) summarize the gist of arguments put forward by the preceding papers regarding the nature-nurture issue
and (b) take five major areas of professional practice (programming, identification, curriculum, teaching, and counseling) and connect them to ideas explicated in these papers.
Following Bronfenbrenner & Crouter (1983), Wachs divides the 20th century's approaches to nature-nurture issues
in psychology into three distinguishable phases.