The study's senior author, professor Sophie von Stumm said: "This study is the largest naturalistic observation
of early life home environments to date.
Typically, a naturalistic observation
vehicle was equipped with devices that continuously monitor various aspects of driving behavior, including information about vehicle movements (e.g., acceleration and deceleration, position on the road, and driving speed), about the driver (e.g., eye, head and hand movements), and about the direct environment (e.g., time headway, traffic density, road, and weather conditions).
All grappled with the complexity of measuring individualised treatment in order to assess the outcome of treatment based on a naturalistic observation
To test the influence of the observational frame and the cultural consistency across the frames, we calculated repeated measures MANOVA with the observational frame (naturalistic observation
versus playing video) as the repeated measures factor, the mothers' cultural community as an independent variable, and the behavior types (body contact, body stimulation, face-to-face context, and object stimulation) as dependent variables.
A number of specific features of qualitative research that require additional ethical attention and awareness also need to be understood, including the following: 1) participants are frequently quite vulnerable and require protection because the data collection methods, such as in-depth interviews, can delve into personally and politically charged matters; 2) naturalistic observation
can raise concerns regarding privacy and consent; 3) the potential for the identifiability of the results of this research may require extra efforts to maintain confidentiality.
Much theorizing and naturalistic observation
has to be done before worthwhile experiments are possible.
We explored this issue using a retrospective, naturalistic observation
of a group of GPs who abandoned the "old" Riva-Rocci or the aneroid sphygmomanometer and adopted this new device.
In this article I draw primarily on a 6-month period (August 2011-January 2012) of unobtrusive naturalistic observation
of smokers and not-smokers (4) on their lunch breaks.
So as to analyze the production of pointing gestures in real communicative spaces, and without restricting its variability in terms of the different functions that these gestures can take on, we opted for naturalistic observation
and longitudinal data.
Thus, utilizing within-subject design methodologies for naturalistic observation
appears to offer greater advantages.
Given the time consuming and artificial nature of many of the preference assessments, recent investigations on the identification of potential reinforcers have moved into the natural setting using naturalistic observation
studies provide a better understanding of how behavior and environmental events occur in the natural environment.