The intra-examiner agreement of all plaster model measurements and all 3D digital measurements (except for the nasal width) performed by the lecturer were good or excellent (ICC equal or greater than 0.75 and 0.9, respectively).
Accordingly, in our study, we found that the nasal width measurement was not reliable.
Ideally, the most lateral aspect of the ala should fall within a perpendicular line dropped from the medial aspect of the medial canthus and infratip lobule width should be approximately 75% of the nasal width
found a significant increase in nasal width
assessed via linear measurements immediately after the end of an expansion activation protocol .
SN Facial linear distances Landmarks 1 Special head height v-en 2 Special face height en-gn 3 Forehead height II tr-n 4 Nose length n-sn 5 Lower face height sn-gn 6 Height of calva v-tr 7 Forehead height I tr-g 8 Special upper face height I g-sn 9 Interocular distance en-en 10 Nasal width
al-al 11 Upper facial width zy-zy 12 Mouth width ch-ch 13 Orbital length ex-en TABLE 3: Nine neoclassical canon facial proportions and their variations.
Garva et al in 2012 established anthropometric values for lip nose complex of Igbos males and females in Maiduguri, Male subject presented the value of nasal width
and height higher than females, showing the significant relationship, p<0.05.
showed no significant differences from growth during treatment.
Condylobasal length, 29.8; least interorbital breadth, 4.1; zygomatic width, 17.4; greatest length of the skull, 31; basal length, 27.6; breadth of braincase, 13.9; maxillary tooth row, 5.6; tympanic bullae length (without tube) 4.8; mandibular tooth row, 16.5; diastema length, 8.3; incisive width, 3.1; incisive foramina length, 7.3; nasal width
There is direct impact of expansion, face mask therapy, extraction decision, growth modification, surgical orthodontics and growth on the nasal appearance.7-11 Expansion therapy broadens the nose, early the expansion greater is the impact on the nasal width
and nasal prominence.7 Face mask therapy improves the maxillary prominence but may affect adversely in patients with already short nose.8 Nasal prominence also effects the extraction decision as in patients with already prominent nose extraction of maxillary 1st premolars will further worsen the profile.9 Nasal morphology and prominence is affected by surgical maxillary impaction, advancement, setback and expansion.10,11
Correlation of nasal width
to inter-canine distance in various arch forms.
as a guide for the selection of maxillary complete denture anterior teeth in four racial groups.
Relationship between the piriform aperture and interalar nasal widths
in adult males.