pertaining to the nose.
characterized by mild nasal discharge and hyperemia, occasionally severe rhinitis. See also pneumonyssuscaninum
a chronic granulomatous lesion in the nasal cavity of the sheep, causing nasal obstruction and discharge, usually unilaterally.
in horses analogous to AL-amyloidosis in humans; can occur independently of a generalized disease, affecting nasal vestibule and anterior septum and turbinates, with sufficient nodular or diffuse deposits to obstruct the nasal passage.
nasal areae, nasal plane
the polygonal, raised, epidermal markings on the skin of the nasolabial plane of the dog. The pattern of marking is individual to each dog and can be used for identification, similar to the use of fingerprints in humans.
nasal bot fly
infestation causes sneezing and constant nasal discharge. The presence of the flies in the flock causes some insect worry. See also oestrusovis
flow of the breath from the nostrils as distinct from the breath from the mouth.
nasal breath volume
as determined by holding the palms of the hands in front of the nostrils; diminution or cessation of flow are readily appreciated.
chronic nasal discharge without obvious physical cause. A specific problem of unknown etiology in rabbits, although Bordetella bronchiseptica is thought to be implicated. Manifested by sneezing, constant nasal and ocular discharge and matting of the fur on the insides of the forelimbs. Called also snuffles.
nasal cavity erectile tissue
erectile tissue present only in some patients; usually collapsed.
nasal cavity obstruction
by mucosal inflammation, foreign body, neoplasm; detected by assessing the nasal breath flow.
nasal cavity olfactory region
located on ethmoturbinates, turbinates and nasal septum; covered by olfactory epithelium including sustentacular, basal and olfactory cells.
nasal cavity respiratory region
covers most of the cavities; covered by respiratory epithelium containing many, mainly serous, glands and carrying cilia.
see paranasal sinuses.
nasal cavity vestibular region
place of transition from skin to respiratory epithelium.
see Table 10.
reciprocal change in degree of congestion between nostrils; when the mucosa of one nasal cavity becomes congested the mucosal congestion of the opposite nasal cavity diminishes.
1. occurs as a congenital deviation of the maxilla and nasal septum and leads to malocclusion of the maxillary teeth.
2. in older animals can result from paranasal
sinus cysts or sinonasal neoplasia.
Nasal deviation in a horse. By permission from Knottenbelt DC, Pascoe RR, Diseases and Disorders of the Horse, Saunders, 2003
may be unilateral or bilateral, serous, purulent, hemorrhagic, or contain food material.
encapsulated nasal hematoma
persistent because of its size; blood is accumulated under respiratory mucosa so as to resemble a polyp. Like a polyp the hematoma obstructs the flow of breath through the nasal cavity.
enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma
of sheep and cattle may occur at a sufficiently high incidence to suggest an infectious cause. Usually unilateral in front of the ethmoid bone.
nasal foreign bodies
take the form of grass seeds or sticks poked up while the animal is scratching its muzzle in allergic rhinitis, especially in cattle. Cause sneezing, nasal discharge, inspiratory dyspnea, snoring noise and rubbing of the nose. Foreign bodies may be viewable or palpable.
the caudal part of the nasal cavity, close to the ethmoid bone.
cause unilateral nasal obstruction; are usually the result of foreign body injury, rarely due to inept passage of a nasal tube or endoscope.
. Called also rhinorrhagia, nose bleed.
see nasal acariasis (above).
nasal mucosal inflammation nasal obstruction
causes respiratory stertor, mouth breathing, and small airstreams from the nostrils. It may be caused by a palpable foreign body.
smell of the nasal breath; may be necrotic, smell of ketones.
progressive nasal hematoma nasal schistosomiasis
infection with the blood fluke schistosoma
, which is largely asymptomatic but can cause dyspnea, snoring and profuse nasal discharge.
a vertical plate of bone and cartilage covered with mucous membrane that divides the cavity of the nose. See also septum
cotton swab on a stick, passed up the nostril to obtain a sample of exudate and epithelial debris for microbiological or cellular examination.
see nasal conchae (above) and Table 10.
the part of the nasal cavity just inside the nostrils that is lined with skin.
flushing of the nasal cavity, usually with sterile saline, to recover cells or infectious agents for cytology or culture.
1. a recess, cavity, or channel, as (a) one in bone or (b) a dilated, valveless channel for venous blood.
2. an abnormal channel or fistula, permitting escape of pus. In common, unqualified usage, the word sinus refers to any of the cavities in the skull that are connected with the nasal cavity—the paranasal sinuses.
furrows, with pouchlike recesses at their distal ends, separating the rectal columns; called also anal crypts.
a dural venous sinus which runs on the floor of the cranial cavity and out through the foramen magnum.
an irregularly shaped venous channel between the layers of dura mater of the brain, one on either side of the body of the sphenoid bone and communicating across the midline. Several cranial nerves and, when present, the rete mirabile, course through this sinus.
cavernous sinus syndrome
lesions of the cavernous syndrome, caused by neoplasia or infectious agents, result in a dilated pupil and paralysis of the globe; vision is usually spared.
one of the ventricles of the brain.
a temporary depression in the neck of the embryo containing the branchial arches.
the venous channel encircling the pituitary gland, formed by the two cavernous sinuses and the anterior and posterior intercavernous sinuses.
cavity of the conchal bone.
the terminal portion of the great cardiac vein, which lies in the cardiac sulcus between the left atrium and ventricle, and empties into the right atrium.
dermoid sinus, dermal sinus dorsal sagittal sinus
a large dural venous sinus located within the falx cerebri.
dura mater venous sinus
large channels for venous blood forming an anastomosing system between the layers of the dura mater of the brain.
that paranasal sinus consisting of the ethmoidal cells collectively, and communicating with the nasal meatuses.
one of the paired paranasal sinuses in the frontal bone, each communicating with the middle meatus of the ipsilateral nasal cavity.
an air-filled recess in the head of birds which lies lateral to the nasal cavity into which it opens.
channels connecting the two cavernous sinuses, one passing anterior and the other posterior to the stalk of the pituitary gland.
the cutaneous pouch, which lies between the claws of sheep and some other ruminants and whose wall contains apocrine glands, and whose duct surfaces on the skin just above the coronets; it serves as a trail gland.
irregular, tortuous spaces within lymphoid tissues through which lymph flows.
one of the paired paranasal sinuses in the body of the maxilla on either side, opening into the middle meatus of the ipsilateral nasal cavity. In the horse it is divided into two compartments that communicate independently with the nasal chambers. All other sinuses of the horse communicate with the nasal chambers via the caudal maxillary sinus.
see paranasal sinuses (below).
a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve; carries the afferent fibers of the stretch receptors in the wall of the carotid sinus.
a venous sinus between the layers of dura mater, passing along the midline of the cerebellum.
mucosa-lined air cavities in bones of the skull, communicating with the nasal cavity and including ethmoidal, frontal, maxillary and sphenoidal sinuses.
petrosal sinus (inferior)
a venous channel arising from the cavernous sinus and draining into the internal jugular vein.
petrosal sinus (superior)
one arising from the cavernous sinus and draining into the transverse sinus of the dura mater.
the dorsolateral recess between the seminal colliculus and the wall of the urethra.
pulmonary trunk sinus
spaces between the wall of the pulmonary trunk and cusps of the pulmonary valve at its opening from the right ventricle.
red pulp sinus
vascular storage in the spleen into which capillaries empty.
sinus reflex arc
afferent fibers are in the sinus nerve; these connect with the cardioinhibitory and vasomotor centers which control blood pressure and heart rate via sympathetic fibers to blood vessels; provides a route for the sinus reflex which relates pressure in the carotid sinus to the performance of the circulatory system.
a recess in the substance of the kidney, occupied by the renal pelvis, calices, vessels, nerves and fat.
sagittal sinus (inferior)
a small venous sinus of the dura mater of large animals found between the cerebral hemispheres and opening into the straight sinus.
sagittal sinus (superior)
a venous sinus of the dura mater that courses between the cerebral hemispheres and ends in the confluence of sinuses.
a venous sinus of the dura mater on either side, continuous with the straight sinus and draining into the internal jugular vein of the same side.
one of the paired paranasal sinuses in the body of the sphenoid bone of some species. In the horse it communicates with the nasal cavity via the frontal and caudal maxillary sinuses.
one of the venous sinuses of the dura mater, emptying into the cavernous sinus.
dilated venous channels in the substance of the spleen. See also red pulp sinus (above).
a venous sinus of the dura mater formed by junction of the great cerebral vein and inferior sagittal sinus, and ending in the confluence of sinuses.
a space between the calcaneus and talus.
transverse dura mater sinus
a large venous sinus that runs in the attached border of the cerebellar tentorium on either side of the skull.
transverse pericardial sinus
a passage within the pericardial sac, between the aorta and pulmonary trunk cranioventrally, and the left atrium and cranial vena cava dorsally.
a deep recess on the medial wall of the middle ear.
an anomalous closure of the urachal canal in the newborn in which the opening at the umbilicus remains open. The bladder is normal. It is the cause of persistent infection and swelling at the umbilicus in the young animal and may lead to cystitis and pyelonephritis.
a small cavity in the glans penis of the horse, above the urethral process; as a recess of the fossa glandis it is usually filled with a small mass (bean) of inspissated smegma.
an elongated sac formed by division of the cloaca in the early embryo, which ultimately forms most of the vestibule, urethra and vagina in the female, and some of the urethra in the male.
venous channels in the wall of the uterus in pregnancy.
blood spaces between the placenta and uterine sinuses.
venae caval sinus
the posterior portion of the right atrium into which the inferior and the superior vena cava open.
a chamber which is the greater part of the right atrium into which the great veins discharge.
venous sinus, sinus venosus
1. the common venous receptacle in the heart of the early embryo that receives blood from the umbilical and vitelline veins and from the body via the ducts of Cuvier.
2. sinus of venae cavae.
a continuation of part of the common occipital vein in birds; it emerges from the foramen magnum and accompanies the vertebral vein.
Patient discussion about nasal sinus
Q. My 21 year son has chronic sinus issues, I think, due to many high school sports injuries. Help! His ENT has recommended a "nose job" but our insurance will not cover it. Do you know of any holostic, nutritional or homeopathic solutions to keep this under control? When he gets a headache, it shuts him down and normally goes into a migraine.
A. One of the best, most inexpensive, ways to prevent, treat, and generally care for any sinus related problem is with a saline (salt water) sinus rinse. The one I use is called "Neil Med" and can be purchased at Walgreen's for about $15. It has a plastic bottle with pre-measured, pre-packaged salt that is should be mixed with cooled off sterilized (boiled) water. If I get an infection, using 2 or 3 packets to concentrate the solution gives the lavage a bacteriostatic (stuns/partially kills bacteria), not bacteriocidal (kills bacteria) quality. I do not own Neil Med although I wish I did!! The lavage method also washes out any dust, old mucous, you name it. It should be used prior to the use of any nasal steroid like Flonase if treating allergic rhinitis. Good luck!!
Q. I have been having chronic pain in sinus area and behind my eyes, been to ENT who states it is not infection? I wake up with the pain and go to sleep in severe pain. Its all day and all night. Dr insists that its migraine related and allergy related. I have chronic postnasal drainage. It started 4 months ago when I moved into our new house. The pain makes me extremely fatigue and dizzy at times. I have been referred to the eye doctor, a headache specialist and an allergy specialist. Just recently I have had a CT scan and an MRI, as well as xrays of my sinus. Nothing other than a deviated septum and possible allergies from an ENT has been diagnosed. In the mean time I am waiting for the days to come when I can get into see these specialist. Anyone out there have any of the same symptoms?? Need help here. Soooooo sick of the pain.
A. i have chronic sinusitis and can really relate to what you describe. learned to live with the pain...but still, i use various ways to reduce inflammation in my sinuses, i heat the place up before going to sleep, try to avoid eating or drinking cold stuff.
another thing i do is i heat water (80c) then add a special oil i bought in a chinese medicine store , about 5 drops, and inhale the fumes. nettle tea can do wonders too.
Q. sinus infection and Polups and I can't breath through my nose. What can I do?
A. I have used the expresso machine for the steam only and run that through a glass with some vics in it. Helped but the polups are so large now its hard to get any thing through. More discussions about nasal sinus