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Nasal glioma is the most frequently encountered entity among congenital nasal masses, which are seen in one in 20,000-40,000 live births (1).
Encephalocele from midline defects and embryonic origin nasal glioma are similar and are related to the abnormal partition of the ectoderm and neuroectoderm during the development of the nose (2).
In view of the presence of an isolated intranasal mass, the differential diagnoses considered at the time of presentation were congenital midline nasal mass (e.g., nasal glioma) and nasal tumor (e.g., nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma, or nasal teratoma).
These are one of the congenital midline masses a category which also includes nasal dermoids and encephaloceles.(2) The nasal glioma first described by Schmidt in 1900.(3,4) The reported incidence is 1 in every 20,000 to 40,000 births,(5) histologically they are made up of astrocytic neuroglial cells, fibrous and vascular connective tissue that is covered with naso-respiratory mucosa.
Nasal glioma and encephalocele: Diagnosis and management.
The common clinical differential diagnoses include nasal glioma, nasal dermoid, hemangioma and lipoma.
Nasal glioma is a rare benign tumor that usually occurs during infancy.
Nasal masses in infancy are infrequently encountered, and most of them are developmental anomalies, such as encephalocele, nasal glioma, hamartoma, and nasolacrimal duct cyst.
Exclusion Criteria: Patients presenting with congenital sino nasal mass, sino nasal mass of intracranial origin such as basal meningocoele, basal meningoencephalocoele, and nasal glioma were excluded.
Amin et al state that most eases of nasal glioma that have been reported in the literature have occurred in:
Nasal glial heterotopia, also called nasal glioma, is a rare developmental abnormality, which is probably related to congenital encephalocele.
(1,2) The most common congenital nasal masses are nasal dermal sinus cysts, nasal encephaloceles, and nasal gliomas. These masses appear to share a similar embryogenic origin; they occur when the neuroectodermal and ectodermal tissues fail to separate during the development of the nose.