To determine the resistance profile of the isolated strains, we selected different groups of antibiotics like ampicillin, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, cefotaxime, nalidixic acid
, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, meropenem, imipenem, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, piperacillin-tazobactum (20).
coli (18) 18/18 0 * 18/18 0/18 * (100%) (0%) (100%) (0%) S = susceptible, R = resistant, NAL= nalidixic acid
, CIP = ciprofloxacin, ERY = erythromycin, GEN = gentamycin, AMO =amoxicillin, AMO-CLAV = amoxicillin-clavulanicacid, * Difference between groups is statistically significant (P<0.05).
With the aid of sterile forceps, cephalothin and nalidixic acid
discs were placed on the surface of inoculated plate and incubated at 37[degrees]C for 3-6 days under microaerophilic conditions.
Of the 10 resistant isolates in PG D, 4 (40%) from central Uganda were all resistant to tetracycline, while two were in addition resistant to chloramphenicol or nalidixic acid
. Similarly all 6 (60%) of isolates from eastern region were resistant to tetracycline and two of these were also resistant to chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin or nalidixic acid
, while in PG 3 of 5 isolates in PG B1 were also resistant to ciprofloxacin (1 isolate) from central and tetracycline alone or in combination with chloramphenicol for each isolate from eastern Uganda (Table 1).
In the middle-aged group, males had significant resistance to all tested FQs than females (p<0.05), while sensitivity was significantly better (p<0.05) for FQs among females than males except for enoxacin and nalidixic acid
was the first developed compound of this family of 1,8-naphthyridines.
Indicators of Salmonella Isolates with Nalidixic Acid
and Ciprofloxacin Susceptibility.
On the other hand, the result is disagree with the result obtained by Prince et al., (1997) who reported that Klebsiella pneumoniae is a difficult infection to treat because of the organism's thick capsule and it is best treated with third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins (Cefotaxime), quinolones (nalidixic acid
), or carbapenems(imipenem).
Quinolones were introduced into clinical use in 1962 in the form of nalidixic acid
, a fully synthetic agent with bactericidal effects on most members of Enterobacteriaceae.
Antibiotic susceptibility showed that all the isolates were resistant to tetracyclines, nalidixic acid
and cotrimoxazole but susceptible to fluoroquinolones and third generation cephalosporins.
Vaginal swabs are, according to Bailey and Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology, placed in "Todd-Hewitt broth with antimicrobials (gentamicin, nalidixic acid
, or colistin and nalidixic acid
) to suppress the growth of vaginal flora and allow growth Of [GBS] following subculture to blood agar." (6) An example of a Todd-Hewitt Broth is Lim Broth.