mitral valve degeneration (MMVD) is the most common heart disease in dogs (5, 29, 41) accounting for approximately two thirds of the cardiac caseload seen in small animal practice (1, 2, 38).
mitral valve disease is the most common cardiac disease in dogs and prevalence is greatest in small geriatric populations.
OM is a rare aggressive intraosseous lesion derived from embryonic mesenchymal tissue associated with odontogenesis and primarily consisting of a myxomatous
ground substance with widely scattered undifferentiated spindled mesenchymal cells.
MR with congenital, myxomatous
, ischaemic causes and those associated with atrial septal defect, aortic valve disease or any other concomittent disease were excluded from the study.
In addition, it has been shown that transforming growth factor beta (TGF-[beta]), a well-known player in myxomatous
MVP pathogenesis , increases oxidative stress status  as well as OPG production and secretion directly stimulating OPG promoter activity .
Moosdorf, "[CD34.sub.+] fibrocytes in normal mitral valves myxomatous
mitral valve degeneration," Pathology--Research and Practice, vol.
Irregular structure and thickness in dentin and enamel tissues, myxomatous
degeneration, and morphologic disruptions in tooth germs, narrowed pulp chamber were evident in the pamidronate group.
Small and older dogs frequently fall victim to a heart condition technically known as myxomatous
mitral valve degeneration or, more commonly, mitral valve disease.
All patients were performed transthoracic echocardiography and confirmed by color doppler examination that there are myxomatous
lesions of varying sizes in different positions within the heart.
Causes of acute mitral incompetence [1,2] Organic causes of acute mitral Functional causes of acute incompetence mitral incompetence Leaflet perforation or chordae Dilated cardiomyopathy leads to tendineae rupture from leaflet tethering endocarditis Chordal rupture in myxomatous
Acute ischaemic akinesis of wall valvular disease segments and papillary muscle dysfunction Papillary muscle rupture due to Takotsubos cardiomyopathy myocardial infarction Prosthetic valve dysfunction due to endocarditis Table 3.
The most important complication is severe mitral regurgitation due to the myxomatous
degeneration or chordae rupture.