In vitro differentiation of functional human skeletal myotubes
in a defined system.
or myocytes were then incubated with fresh chase media containing myostatin for 2, 4, 6 12, and 24 h.
This increase in oxidative stress promotes protein degradation, including increased expression of the UPP system in myotubes
(Gomes-Marcondes et al.
Conflicting evidence exists in C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes
with one study showing that G-CSF increases myoblast proliferation and activates STAT3, Akt, and Erk1/2  which supports the notion that G-CSF has a direct effect on skeletal muscle cells (Figure 2(a)).
Therefore, a standard palmitate concentration was determined at 0.3 mM for further experiments to induce myotube
atrophy in the absence of significant apoptosis.
, which are mature differentiated multinucleated muscle cells, have been shown to dedifferentiate when induced to express Msx-1 , the microtubule-binding molecule myoseverin , and the small molecule, reversine , or when treated with extracts from regenerating newt limbs .
Method: Quantification of glucose transporter (GLUT4) transcript was done in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes
by qPCR using RPL23 as the internal control.
Brown Jr., "Methylprednisolone increases dystrophin levels by inhibiting myotube
death during myogenesis of normal human muscle in vitro," Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol.
Noteworthy is the increased expression of Igf2 variant 3 and Igf2as transcripts between 24 h and 48 h of differentiation when myotubes
start to form.
On the contrary, it has been found that in vitro myostatin inhibits IGF-induced myotube
Each expression domain outlined the shape of a single muscle myotube
. Interestingly, with low EE, exposures GFP expression in muscle somites was often observed as a mosaic pattern (it was expressed in only some of the myotubes
The dose response curves and the [EC.sub.50] for each RYR1 activator were obtained for each myotube
by fitting a nonlinear regression with a variable slope sigmoid curve using Prism (GraphPad Software, La Jolla, USA).