progresses rapidly, often presenting with sudden onset severe pain at the site of infection with a mean incubation period of less than 24 hours.
They play a central part in the local and systemic development of the pathophysiology of envenomation, respectively, by inducing haemorrhage, myonecrosis
, inflammation, cutaneous lesions, and haemostasis disturbances [12-15].
Based on the clinical history as well as labs and imaging findings, a diagnosis of diabetic myonecrosis
Key words: Clostridium sordellii, Clostridium perfringens, avian clostridiosis, myonecrosis
, enteritis, cytotoxins, avian, brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis
In our case, the diagnosis was delayed and our patient experienced myonecrosis
with resulting myoglobinuria that required intensive care monitoring and resuscitation but did not progress to acute tubular necrosis.
Rastogi et al., "Spontaneous diabetic myonecrosis
: report of four cases from a tertiary care institute," Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports, Article ID 150003, 2015.
In more progressed cases, MRI demonstrates intramuscular fluid collections which can represent abscesses or myonecrosis
CS causes infection through myonecrosis
and release of exotoxins.
The light microscopic examination of heart sections from the myocardial IR group showed myofibrillar membrane damage with extensive myonecrosis
, edema, and inflammatory cell infiltration as compared to the light microscopic examination of heart sections from the sham group (Figure 5).
SVMPs induce haemorrhage, myonecrosis
, skin damage, inflammation, and degradation of extracellular matrix components.
They have contraction band necrosis with variable amounts of myonecrosis
; some cases also have interstitial inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and lymphocytes [41, 49, 50].
perfringens strains produce a-toxin, a major extracellular toxin that has been shown to be essential for clostridial myonecrosis
(Awad et al.