A variety of genes mutate their function to reach malignancy state e.g., p53, Raf, retinoblastoma (Rb), protein phosphatase 2A, telomerase, Ral-GEFs, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Ras, Rac, cellular v-myc myelocytomatosis
viral oncogene homolog (c-Myc), STAT3, NF-jB, and HIF-1a.
(19) Retroviruses, such as AVL and REV, have been associated with a variety of neoplastic diseases, including leukemia, (20) lymphoid leukosis, myeloid leukosis, myeloblastosis, myelocytomatosis
, hemangiomas, erythroblastosis, osteopetrosis, and nephroblastomas.
Cell proliferation and apoptosis is regulated by approximately 7% of clock-controlled genes, including myelocytomatosis
viral oncogene human recombinant (C-Myc), murine double minute oncogene (Mdm-2), and growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible alpha protein (Gadd 45a) and those encoding p53, caspases, and cyclins.
Inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPS or iPSCs) are generated by viral transfection of fibroblasts from adult humans, with these key transcriptional factors: Oct4/3 (octamer-binding transcription factor 4/3), Sox2 (sex determining region Y), Klf4 (kruppel-like factor 4), and c-Myc (avian myelocytomatosis
virus oncogene cellular homologue) .
For example, 2-hydroxyglutarate accumulation in a subset of aggressive breast cancers has been shown to be caused by metabolic reprogramming driven by myelocytomatosis
protooncogene (MYC) protein (68).
This study revealed that gene profile was involved in the DNA damage surveillance mechanisms such as checkpoint kinase I (CHEK1), checkpoint kinase II (CHEK2), tumor protein p53 (TP53), and V-MYC myelocytomatosis
viral oncogene homolog (MYC).
(4) as a myc-related gene, which was eventually called MYCN (v-myc avian myelocytomatosis
viral oncogene neuroblastomaderived homolog).
Indeed, several MYB targets, including B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2), v-Kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Kit), CD34, baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 3, v-Myc avian myelocytomatosis
viral oncogene homolog, and mitotic arrest deficient-like 1, were shown to be upregulated in ACC.
This study provided cytogenetic findings in a CLL/SLL patient with v-myc avian myelocytomatosis
viral oncogene homolog ( C-MYC )-amplification by FISH, in which SNP arrays detected profound genomic upheaval due to chromothripsis that may lead to malignant transformation.
In contrast, at day 15 after enucleation expression of only 2 genes was upregulated (Anxa1 and podoplanin--Pdpn) and expression of 7 genes was downregulated, including genes of myelocytomatosis
oncogene (Myc); Bmp2; transcription factors Prox1 and Hhex; dual specificity phosphatase 1 (Dusp1); signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B (Stat5b) and protein Prdm.
Increased ECM stiffness generated by collagen regulates breast epithelial signaling through integrin activation of [beta]-catenin and MYC (a transcription factor persistently expressed in cancers, so named because it is similar to the myelocytomatosis
viral oncogene) to activate the microRNA18a expression that drives breast tumor progression (as discussed by ).
The predicted targets of miR-145 were oncogenes myc myelocytomatosis
viral-related oncogene (MYCN), FOS, and yamaguchi sarcoma oncogene (YES); cell-cycle promoters such as cyclins D2 and L1; and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) transduction proteins such as MAP3K3 and MAP4K4 .