myelinization


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myelinization

 [mi″ĕ-lin″ĭ-za´shun]
production of myelin around an axon. Called also myelination.

my·e·li·na·tion

(mī'ĕ-li-nā'shŭn),
The acquisition, development, or formation of a myelin sheath around a nerve fiber.

my·e·li·na·tion

, myelinization (mī'ĕ-li-nā'shŭn, nī-zā'shŭn)
The acquisition, development, or formation of a myelin sheath around a nerve fiber.

Patient discussion about myelinization

Q. What is Myelin?

A. As part of the nervous system, myelin lines nerve fibers to protect and insulate neurons. Myelin aids in the quick and accurate transmission of electrical current carrying data from one nerve cell to the next. When myelin becomes damaged, the process involves numerous health conditions, including multiple sclerosis.

Dysfunction in the myelin of nerve fibers causes the interruption of smooth delivery of information. Either nerve impulses can be slowed, such that we can't pull our hand away in time to avoid being burned, or mixed up, so we aren't able to determine if a pan is hot in the first place. This is akin to a pet chewing on a wire, causing the device to dysfunction. When problems arise in nerves of the PNS, neuropathy might result, and when injury affects the nerves of the CNS, multiple sclerosis is often diagnosed.

More discussions about myelinization
References in periodicals archive ?
In the altered pathways in the overexpressed genes, astrocyte development and myelinization were found de/regulated, although we couldn't identify the status of CRYAB phosphorylation due to the experimental design of our study, the fact that the myelinization pathway is increased and that, as previously described, CRYAB is involved in favoring this process in the peripheral nervous system, could suggest that the increase of the CRYAB expression in the PFC exerts a cytoprotective effect (65, 66).
The final process is myelinization, during which a "layer of insulation called myelin progressively envelops these nerve fibers making them more efficient, just like the insulation on electric wires improves their conductivity" (NIMH, 2003, p.
Oligodendrocyte function, in fact, does not cease until myelinization is complete.
The following have been nominated: more cortical columns; greater number of stem cells; different rates of neuronal death; dendritic expansion; number of synapses; thickness of myelin; metabolic efficiency; greater number of nerve cell bodies; greater number of processing elements; more extensive connectivity in the left hemisphere; neuronal quantity or myelinization; and millions of excess neurones for some individuals.
During this critical period, neural pathways develop through the process of myelinization (Sorgen, 1998).
The cerebrum of an infant is at risk for the most severe damage during a shaking incident.[13-15] The softness of the skull, open sutures, incomplete myelinization, large cerebrospinal fluid spaces and cerebral vasoreactivity all contribute to the critical nature of head trauma in a small child.[15] Shaking can tear the bridging veins that connect the cerebral cortex to the venous sinuses, particularly the sagittal sinus.
Possible biological causes that have been proposed include genetic factors, biochemical abnormalities (imbalances of such brain chemicals as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine), neurological damage, lead poisoning, thyroid problems, prenatal exposure to various chemical agents, and delayed myelinization of the nerve pathways in the brain.(25)
This myelinization of message pathways in the brain occurs at a rapid rate until about age 2 and continues at a slower pace until puberty.
In the same period of life, MBL seems also to play a role in contact guidance of neuronal migration, interneuronal recognition, myelinization, and tightening of the ependymal cell barrier [5].
The amount of apoptosis necessary for physiological brain development is determined by the degree of myelinization and the water content of the brain (Smith et al.) It has been suggested that apoptosis of oligodendrocytes after traumatic CNS injury may be a result of either the direct trauma or a secondary event due to loss of trophic support from the degenerating axons (Beattie et al., 1998).
These signal changes may be related with edema, gliosis, loss of myelinization, necrosis of the nerve cells or cystic degeneration as a result of the harmful effects of copper on the brain tissues (8).
2003) as well as synaptogenesis and myelinization, all processes that begin during the first trimester of pregnancy (Rice and Barone 2000).