Mycoplasma

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Mycoplasma

 [mi´ko-plaz″mah]
a genus of highly pleomorphic, gram-negative, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria that lack cell walls, including the pleuropneumonia-like organisms and other species.
Mycoplasma ho´minis a species found associated with nongonococcal urethritis and mild pharyngitis.
Mycoplasma pneumo´niae a cause of primary atypical pneumonia; called also Eaton agent.

Mycoplasma

(mī'kō-plaz'mă),
A genus of aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria (family Mycoplasmataceae) containing gram-negative cells that do not possess a true cell wall but are bounded by a three-layered membrane; they do not revert to bacteria-containing cell walls or cell wall fragments. The minimal reproductive units of these organisms are 0.2-0.3 mcm in diameter. The cells are pleomorphic, and in liquid media appear as coccoid bodies, rings, or filaments. Colonies of most species consist of a central core, growing down into the medium, surrounded by superficial peripheral growth. They require sterol for growth. They also require enrichment with serum or ascitic fluid. These organisms are found in humans and other animals and can be pathogenic. The type species is Mycoplasma mycoides.
Synonym(s): Asterococcus
[myco- + G. plasma, something formed (plasm)]

my·co·plas·ma

, pl.

my·co·plas·ma·ta

(mī'kō-plaz'mă, -plaz'mah-tă),
A vernacular term used only to refer to any member of the genus Mycoplasma.

mycoplasma

(mī′kō-plăz′mə)
n.
Any of various extremely small bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma that lack cell walls, are usually nonmotile, and are often pathogenic or parasitic in mammals.

my′co·plas′mal adj.

Mycoplasma

A genus of incomplete intracellular and extracellular pathogens of class Mollicutes, which cause walking pneumonia that resolves in 4–6 weeks and genitourinary infections. M hominis may cause pelvic inflammatory disease, septicaemia and urogenital infection.
 
Microbiology
Mycoplasma measure 0.25 µm, lack cell wall precursors (N-acetyl glucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid), divide by binary fusion and fragmentation, and have CO2 and NH3 as end products of ureaplasma enzymatic hydrolysis. The growth medium requires fresh yeast or fatty acids, sterols and nucleic acids; the spherule seen on culture represents a microcolony and has a fried egg appearance. M pneumoniae produces hydrogen peroxide, may be identified by hemadsorption and CF, and infects epithelial cells without producing leukocytosis.
 
Diagnosis
Based on a a single titre of > 1:256, or a 4-fold increased in titer when ≥ 2 specimens have been obtained from the patient on different occasions.

Mycoplasma

Infectious disease A pathogen that causes 'walking pneumonia'–resolving in 4-6 wks, and genitourinary infections. M hominis may cause PID, septicemia, urogenital infection

My·co·plas·ma

(mī'kō-plaz'mă)
A genus of aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria containing gram-negative cells that do not possess a true cell wall but are bounded by a three-layered membrane. The cells are pleomorphic and, in liquid media, appear as coccoid bodies, rings, or filaments. These organisms are found in humans and other animals and are parasitic to pathogenic.
[myco- + G. plasma, something formed (plasm)]

my·co·plas·ma

, pl. mycoplasmata (mī'kō-plaz-mă, -plaz'mă-tă)
A vernacular term used to refer to any member of the genus Mycoplasma.

Mycoplasma

A genus of very small micro-organisms, about the size of some viruses but capable of independent existence. Unlike bacteria they have no cell walls. Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes outbreaks of PNEUMONIA in institutions. Mycoplasma hominis , is often present harmlessly in the mouth or vagina but is believed to be a cause of URETHRITIS and SALPINGITIS. Mycoplasma infections respond to TETRACYCLINE and ERYTHROMYCIN.

Mycoplasma

A type of free-living microorganism that has no cell wall. Mycoplasmas cause some varieties of pneumonia and urinary tract infections that stimulate the body to produce cold agglutinins.
Mentioned in: Cold Agglutinins Test

My·co·plas·ma

(mī'kō-plaz'mă)
A genus of aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria found in humans and other animals; range from parasitic to pathogenic.
[myco- + G. plasma, something formed (plasm)]
References in periodicals archive ?
Jones, "Contagious agalactia and other mycoplasmal diseases of small ruminants" in Proceedings of the Agriculture Commission of the European Communities, Nice, France, September 1985.
In a career performing quality control or quality assurance for biopharma manufacturing anywhere in the world, a QC or QA specialist will probably encounter mycoplasmal contamination of a production facility at least once.
(17) A North American study identified chronic infections in 142 of 200 patients (71%) with 22% of all patients having multiple mycoplasmal infections while just 12 of the 100 control subjects (12%) had infections (p<0.01) and none had multiple infections.
Mycoplasmal Infections Prevent Apoptosis and Induce Malignant Transformation of Interleukin-3-Dependent 32D Hematopoietic Cells.
Avian Bacterial, Mycoplasmal and Chlamydial Diseases.
In terrestrial wildlife, dozens of diseases have come to the fore in the past few decades, including canine distemper, a virally caused kangaroo blindness, ranavirus infection in amphibians, and mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in some birds.
Trees are quite susceptible to disease, especially to the mycoplasmal spike disease, which affects the principal forests (see Nayar (1988) for a detailed review of spike disease).
PRRS is widespread in the United States and interacts with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (discussed under Mycoplasmal Diseases) in affecting the clinical signs and lung lesions produced.
A wide spectrum of infectious diseases are discussed in Chapter 5, including bacterial, viral, mycoplasmal, rickettsial, fungal, and parasitic.
They published much of their research on vital and mycoplasmal diseases of flax and tomato plants and on the development of the healthy rice plant.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes approximately 20% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia.[16-18] Some epidemiologic evidence suggests that the incidence of M pneumoniae bronchitis is 23 times that of mycoplasmal pneumonia.[18] Using retrospective serologic methods, prevalence rates among patients with acute bronchitis have ranged between 5% and 27%.[19-21] Using a newer rapid diagnostic method based on antibody detection and latex agglutination, however, the prevalence was 43% in a study of rural family practice patients.[22]
A report from the January 12, 1993 edition of London's Sunday Telegraph says a London businessman claims that his mycoplasmal pneumonia was caused by contaminated cabin air on a flight from Hawaii to London.