Does having multiple partners weaken the benefits of facultative mutualism
? a test with cacti and cactus-tending ants.
Geographic variation and community structure in an ant-plant mutualism
: Azteca and Cecropia in Costa Rica.
Consequences of ants and extrafloral nectar for pollinating seed-consuming mutualism
: ant satiation, floral distraction, or plant defense?
phase simulates the mutualism
between two living organisms, [eco.sub.i] and [eco.sub.j].
Invasive Argentine ants reduce fitness of red maple via a mutualism
with an endemic coccid.
Previously, corresponding to system (3), Li and Yang  and Li  proposed the following two-species discrete model of mutualism
with infinite deviating arguments:
As MINSAP consolidated and extended state services it had an ambivalent attitude toward mutualism
, which was based on privately owned services.
offers some potential answers for growing housing and community problems in our inner cities.
situates mutualist creatures in relations of interdependence with others, and so the needs of each constitute calls to others.
This type of ant-tree mutualism
is common throughout the tropics, where a variety of trees produce speciali7ed structures to feed and/or house ants.
where [x.sub.i](k) stand for the densities of species [x.sub.i] at the kth generation, [a.sub.i](k) represent the natural growth rates of species [x.sub.i] at the kth generation, [b.sub.i](k) are the intraspecific effects of the kth generation of species [x.sub.i] on own population, [c.sub.ij] (k) measure the interspecific mutualism
effects of the kth generation of species [x.sub.j] on species [x.sub.i] (i, j = 1,2, ..., n,i [not equal to] j), and [d.sub.jj] ([greater than or equal to] 1) are positive control constants.
Corresponding to system (2), Li  proposed the following delayed discrete model of mutualism