This organic acid buildup is caused by one of three mechanisms: genetic defect or absence of the enzyme methylmalonic acid coenzyme A mutase
(mut), defect in the synthesis and transport of mut's cofactor 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, and defect in the mitochondrial transport of cobalamin.
Moreover, the recent discovery of the whole synthesis pathway of Pyl, with PylB being a lysine mutase
 shows that Pyl is entirely a derivative of a proteogenic amino acid (two lysines) and this could make sense in the light of the coevolution theory, such are the cases of Asp/Asn and Glu/Gln in Archaea.
Another enzyme, hydroxylaminobenzene mutase
, catalyzes the conversion of hydroxylaminobenzene to 2-aminophenol through Bamberger rearrangement (Figure 2).
2011, details unpublished), phosphoglycerate kinase (PfPGK) , and phosphoglycerate mutase
(PfPGM)  have been solved.
In mammalian cells, CNCbl and OHCbl are inactive forms and AdoCbl acts as a coenzyme of methylmalonyl Co-A mutase
Molecular modeling, dynamics, and an insight into the structural inhibition of cofactor independent phosphoglycerate mutase
isoform-1 from Wuchereria bancrofti using cheminformatics and mutational studies.
These genes include both the myosin heavy and light chain, and the phosphoglycerate mutase
2 (pgam2) gene.
MMA is a compound that can build up in the bloodstream if there isn't enough vitamin B12 in the body for an enzyme, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase
, to function properly.
This vitamin exerts its physiological action through two enzymatic pathways: the first acts as a co-factor for the methionine synthase enzyme that converts homocysteine into methionine and the second acts upon L-methylmalonyl Coenzyme A (CoA) mutase
enzyme to convert methylmalonyl-CoA into succinyl-CoA4.
Celano, "Evaluation of a Nested-PCR assay based on the phosphoglucosamine mutase
gene (glmM) for the detection of Helicobacter pylori from raw milk" Food Control, vol.
The Helicobacter pylori ureC gene codes for a phosphoglucosamine mutase
. J Bacteriol 1997; 179:3488-3493.
MMA can build up in the bloodstreamif there is not enough vitamin [B.sub.12] in the body for an enzyme (methylmalonyl-CoA mutase
) to function properly.