Several proposed methods include the greatest dimension of the invasive tumor, the aggregate linear length, the depth of invasion (by millimeter measurements or using high-power fields), the anatomic level of involvement (based on its relation to the muscularis mucosa
and the vascular plexus), and the percentage of invasive tumor.
The pathologic evaluation revealed JID with true diverticula and hyperplasia on muscularis mucosa
(Figures 2, 3).
Crypt depth was analyzed between the crypt and villus while mucosa (Muscularis thickness) was measured from the top of villus to the base of the muscularis mucosa
(Aptekmann et al., 2001).
The method of pT1 substaging has not been optimized, but microinvasive disease has been defined by different groups as invasive tumor of <1 high power field, greatest invasive tumor diameter of 1 mm, or invasive tumor above the muscularis mucosa
extending to a depth of 2 mm or less.
The typical magnetic resonance imaging findings of the disease include a hypointense mass on T2-weighted images due to induced fibrosis and hypertrophy of the muscularis mucosa
with or without hyperintense hemorrhagic foci on T1-weighted images with fat suppression, abutting the bowel wall (Fig.).
The severity of colonic injury was evaluated by the following parameters : epithelial damage (0, normal; 1, minimal loss of goblet cells; 2, extensive loss of goblet cells; 3, minimal loss of crypts and extensive loss of goblet cells; and 4, extensive loss of crypts); and infiltration (0, normal; 1, infiltrate around crypt bases; 2, infiltrate in muscularis mucosa
; 3, extensive infiltrate in muscularis mucosa
with edema; and 4, infiltration of submucosa).
Sigmoid ulcer biopsy was performed to denote nature and shows multiple fragments of large intestinal mucosa with muscularis mucosa
included in one of them.
The mucosa is composed of the epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosa
. In adults, the surface epithelium is non-keratinized stratified squamous in type.
Another radical cystectomy was avoided because the review showed a T2 tumour with a possible risk of misinterpretation of muscularis mucosa
for muscularis propria.
Ut: upper thoracic esophagus; Mt: middle thoracic esophagus; Lt: lower thoracic esophagus; EP: epithelium; LPM: lamina propria mucosa; MM: muscularis mucosa
; SM 1: slight submucosal invasion (less than 200 [micro]m from MM); SM 2: deep submucosal invasion (greater than 200 [micro]m from MM); ESD: endoscopic submucosal dissection.
Endoscopic resection was applied to the lesions involving the muscularis mucosa
They usually originate in the muscularis mucosa
or submucosal layer of the esophagus.