Xylazine (20mg/ml) is a potent muscle relaxant, hypnotic and powerful central muscular relaxant
. Xylazine, is usually used in combination with ketamine.
Subsequently, anesthesia was induced with remifentanyl (2 [micro]g/kg), lidocaine (2.5 mg/kg), and propofol (4 mg/kg), without a muscular relaxant. Laryngeal mask anaesthesia was performed using 2.5 size of mask.
Patients with CCHS are sensitive to central respiratory depressant effects of opioids, preoperative anesthetics, anxiolytics, inhalation agents, muscular relaxants, and benzodiazepines.
It is also possible that the threshold to muscular relaxant of different genders is different, or the amount or construction of N2-acetylcholine receptor cation channel is various between man and woman.
However, the onset time of atracurium is slower than suxamethonium and some other non-depolarization muscular relaxants.7 So how to accelerate the onset time and to shorten the intubating time was the main problem in its clinical use in general anesthesia.
In the present study elenoside was given to rats at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg, and its effects on locomotor activity (Varimex test), muscular relaxant activity, open-field test and with chlorpromazine, 10 mg/kg was compared.
In test concerning muscular relaxant activity, the elenoside produced loss of muscular tone in the traction test with the doses employed.
This acts as a muscular relaxant
, reducing tension and spasm, as well as easing anxiety and nervous overactivity.
Yasunobu Handa, a part-time doctor at the hospital in Sendai in Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan, believed the sudden changes in the patients' conditions were due to their intravenous drips being laced with muscular relaxant
by Mori, the prosecutors said.
In clinical practice, atropine, a nonselective muscarinic receptor blocker, is employed to prevent the parasympathomimetic effects induced by neostigmine when the anticholinesterase agent is clinically used to reverse the blockage of neuromuscular transmission caused by non-depolarizing muscular relaxants (Barrio, Miguel, Garcia, & Pelegrin, 2007).
Since the fades ([TOF.sub.fade] and Fade) caused by non-depolarizing agents exhibiting anticholinesterase activity in their molecules may be determined by mechanisms different from those involved with the fades causing muscular relaxants without anticholinesterase activity (Pereira et al., 2012), and taking into account that atropine is the muscarinic antagonist used in anesthesiology practice (Barrio et al., 2007), current study comparatively tested the protective effects of atropine and ZM241385, the latter being a blocker of [A.sub.2A] receptors (Pereira et al., 2012) against the cisatracurium inducing drastic levels of fades (83% [TOF.sub.fade], 100% Fade) in the phrenic nerve diaphragm muscle of rats.