(redirected from Muscular hypertrophy)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal.
Related to Muscular hypertrophy: muscular atrophy, muscular hyperplasia


1. pertaining to a muscle.
2. having well-developed muscles.
muscular dystrophy a group of genetically determined, painless, degenerative myopathies that are progressively crippling because muscles are gradually weakened and eventually atrophy. At present there is no specific cure. Not all forms are totally disabling, and it can sometimes be arrested temporarily.

The word dystrophy means faulty or imperfect nutrition. In muscular dystrophy the muscles suffer a vital loss of protein, and muscle fibers are replaced gradually by fat and connective tissue until, in the late stages of the disease, the voluntary muscle system becomes virtually useless. In muscular dystrophy all visible damage occurs in the muscles themselves, and thus the disease is markedly different from multiple sclerosis, in which the muscles are rendered impotent by damage to the nerves that control them.

Muscular dystrophy is believed to be hereditary, although the way it is inherited is not the same for all types of the disease. The disease (or a propensity for it) seems to be carried mainly by women who, while not suffering from it themselves, may pass it on to their offspring, usually their sons. A woman who has conceived a child with muscular dystrophy is probably a carrier, as is a woman who has a relative with the condition.
Childhood Muscular Dystrophy. Muscular dystrophy cannot be detected at birth; in most cases symptoms begin to be noticeable about the second or third year. The child gradually finds it more difficult to play and walk, and as the weakening process continues, a wheelchair becomes necessary. In many cases death comes before the age of 20 from respiratory ailments or heart failure. This childhood type of disease (unfortunately the most common type) is known as the Duchenne type or progressive muscular dystrophy. It is also called pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy because at the beginning the muscles, especially those in the calves, appear healthy and bulging when actually they are already weakened and their size is due to an excess of fat.
Other Types. Another type sometimes begins in childhood but is much more likely to appear during the teens or twenties. When the first symptom is a failure of the musculature of the pelvic girdle, this type is referred to as limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. It usually proceeds more slowly than the childhood form. This same type may take the form of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (referring to the face, shoulder, and upper arm muscles), which is likely to manifest itself first in an almost imperceptible weakening of the facial muscles. It is also known as Landouzy-Dejerine muscular dystrophy. Muscle deterioration starts in childhood or early adulthood but it may proceed very gradually over a number of years, sometimes until late in life. Some patients may be only slightly disabled.

Other, rarer types of muscular dystrophy have been identified, including a distal type that begins in the peripheral muscles of the extremities and one that affects only muscles of the eye. Sometimes two or more forms are present in the same patient.
Management. There is almost never any pain in muscular dystrophy. The mind is not affected; patients have normal intelligence. As the small muscles often are the last to be damaged, patients may continue to use their fingers. Children with muscular dystrophy are able to enjoy many recreations, even when they must rely on crutches or wheelchairs. Physical therapy, including exercise of the lungs by deep breathing, is important. The aim of such exercise is not to restore muscle power (which cannot be done) but to ensure that the patient makes the best use of the good muscle tissue remaining and does not develop contractures. The more active patients are, the better they will be physically and mentally. Obesity should be avoided. Splints, braces, and, occasionally, corrective orthopedic surgery are sometimes helpful.

The Muscular Dystrophy Association of America has many local chapters and is concerned both with research and with every aspect of the care and comfort of patients with the disease. They can be contacted at Muscular Dystrophy Association of America, 3300 East Sunrise Drive, Tucson, AZ 85718, or through their web site at The Muscular Dystrophy Association of Canada also has information available and has many local chapters. Their national office can be contacted by writing to Muscular Dystrophy Association of Canada, 2345 Yonge Street, Suite 900, Toronto ON M4P 2E5 or consulting their web site at


1. Relating to a muscle or the muscles, in general.
2. Having well developed musculature.


1. Of, relating to, or consisting of muscle: muscular contraction.
2. Having well-developed muscles: a muscular build.

mus′cu·lar′i·ty (-lăr′ĭ-tē) n.
mus′cu·lar·ly adv.


1. Relating to a muscle or the muscles.
2. Having well-developed musculature.

Patient discussion about muscular

Q. My life is hectic now with fibromyalgia,I need to know how you guys manage with this Muscular Pain? My life is hectic now with fibromyalgia, It started with the pain and turned to irritation and loss of confidence and I became helpless now in the sense like any one can come and pin me the way they want. I am not able to lead a healthy life which I have always dreamt of. I have tried all possible options that hit my mind….but the condition remains same and with medicines there are some other side effects too. ……. I need to know how you guys manage with this Muscular Pain….

A. Some good answers here and might i add I think for each of us it is taking suggestions and seeing what works for us. My doctor keeps reminding me the terrible thing about fibro is it affects everyone different so we have to do the trail and error "thing". I have osteoartritis, degenerative disc disease to so i have to factor those into the things I try. A lot of people soak in hot water...I can't I can't handle extreme temps, hot or cold...feels like needles shooting through me. I take tramadol everyday but have stronger meds for when it is the worse( I try to avoid those as much as possible) they have began muscle relaxers and they have made a difference...I still hurt and am stiff but at least I can manage to move. I rest when I need to...I don't push myself b/c if I do I have found it makes the next day even worse.Luckily I have great family support now, having support and someone to talk to for me has helped a lot.Try to do a little everyday...set small achaivable goals!

Q. Can anybody help me by giving some ideas that how to treat Fibromyalgia? I trust my doctor too. I am Devontae 25 years old. Few months back I had muscular pain and after taking medicines I felt better, but now again the pain started which made me to consult a doctor few days back and he said that I have Fibromyalgia. So can anybody help me by giving some ideas that how to treat Fibromyalgia? I trust my doctor too.

A. The medications help, I take tramadol and cataflam b/c I can't take Lyrica. I walk a little everyday and I have learned to deal with my limitations...on good days I do what I can and on "fibro" days(bad days)
I try to rest and do what I can without making myself hurt worse. I have balance problems, pain and chronic fatigue but I accept what i can and can not do. That was very hard for me but accepting it has made my life less stressful which in turn helps me deal better and feel better. When I stress my body reacts and it isn't nice! I can't handle temp changes very well so I have learned to adapt to that. Warm baths, resting durning the day, little things that i have learned helps. We all seem to have times we feel better and times we feel rock bottom \, know this is a part of it and learn to adjust. I beleive fibromyalgia is a "learning" experience and you have to do A LOt of trail and error!
Support, a positive attitude and my faith have helped me along with

More discussions about muscular
References in periodicals archive ?
(66) considered the effect of a within-set rest period on muscular hypertrophy of the quadriceps.
The present case is unique on account; entailing an adult woman with an isolated segment of idiopathic muscular hypertrophy of the second part of the duodenum causing gastric outlet obstruction.
Moreover, the sheep breeds were ranked by the degree of muscular hypertrophy phenotype using a four category scale from 0 (no hypertrophic sign) to 3 (high double muscling trait).
In the present study, there were differences in hypertrophy between the aerobic and anaerobic training groups, with the groups submitted to resistance training presenting greater muscular hypertrophy. Both training modalities promote activation of the anabolic pathway in muscle tissue, however of different magnitudes (Ozaki et al., 2016), a fact that may explain the lower muscle hypertrophy in the aerobic training group.
They not only want a stronger body, but also large muscles that result from activating metabolic signaling pathways that responsible for muscular hypertrophy (19).
Histological examination during the autopsy of children with AM showed pulmonary artery pathology, including muscular hypertrophy of large- and medium-sized pulmonary arterial branches, severe stenosis of the distal pulmonary arterioles, microthrombotic occlusion of small arteries, and necrotizing arteritis.[sup][4],[5] These putative mechanisms can result from several factors, including circulating vasoactive mediators, blood volume overload, and hyperdynamic circulation.
A supervised progressive resistance training program was designed to induce muscular hypertrophy (week 1-2: 3 sets of 10 repetitions (reps), week 3-4: 4 sets of 10 reps, and week 5-8: 5 sets of 10 reps at 75% 1RM of bilateral arm-curl exercise with 2-min rest intervals).
He had reduced adipose tissue, muscular hypertrophy, elevated CK values (1000 IU/L) and normal EMG results.
The muscular tonifying elements included in the program did not determine any muscular hypertrophy. From the statistical analysis of the data, we observed progress and the symptoms improvement.
Protein timing and its effects on muscular hypertrophy and strength in individuals engaged in weight-training.
Study of production and evaluation of muscular hypertrophy.Archives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation.
(4,6).Although muscular symptoms may occur in many patients with hypothyroidism, muscular hypertrophy with muscle stiffness is reported in less than 10% of the patients.