murine typhus


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Related to murine typhus: scrub typhus, bubonic plague

mu·rine ty·phus

a milder form of epidemic typhus caused by Rickettsia typhi and transmitted to humans by rat or mouse fleas.

murine typhus

n.
A mild, acute, endemic form of typhus caused by the microorganism Rickettsia typhi, transmitted from rats to humans by fleas and characterized by fever, headache, and muscular pain. Also called endemic typhus.

murine typhus

[myo̅o̅′rēn]
Etymology: L, mus, mouse; Gk, typhos, stupor
an acute arbovirus infection caused by Rickettsia typhi and transmitted by the bite of an infected flea. The disease is similar to epidemic typhus but less severe. It is characterized by headache, chills, fever, myalgia, and rash. After an 8- to 16-day incubation period, fever develops and lasts about 12 days. A dull-red maculopapular rash, mainly on the trunk, appears about the fifth day and lasts for 4 to 8 days. Recovery is usually rapid and complete, but death has occurred in elderly or debilitated people. Weil-Felix and complement fixation tests aid in the diagnosis. Chloramphenicol or tetracycline is usually prescribed in treatment. Prevention involves the elimination of the rodents that are the natural host of the organism and the use of appropriate insecticides to control fleas. Also called endemic typhus, flea-borne typhus, New World typhus, rat typhus, urban typhus. Compare epidemic typhus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever. See also Brill-Zinsser disease.

murine typhus

An acute rickettsial infection characterised by fever, headache and rash, similar to (but milder than) epidemic typhus, caused by Rickettsia typhi.  MT occurs sporadically worldwide; it is more prevalent in congested rat-infested urban areas. In the US, it occurs in California, Texas and Hawaii.

Clinical findings
Rash, headache, fever, chills, myalgia, nausea, vomiting, cough; nearly half of patients develop neurological signs (e.g.,  confusion, stupor, seizures, incoordination).

DiffDx
Measles, rubella, Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

Vector
R typhi is transmitted to humans by rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), Reservoir Rats, mice and other rodents.

Management
Tetracycline, chloramphenical.

mu·rine ty·phus

(myūr-ēn' tī'fŭs)
A milder form of epidemic typhus caused by Rickettsia typhi and transmitted to humans by fleas from rats or mice.
Synonym(s): endemic typhus.

murine typhus

An acute but comparatively mild disease featuring fever, headache, muscle aches and a slightly raised MACULAR skin rash. It is caused by Rickettsia mooseri , harboured by rats, and transmitted to humans by the flea Xenopsylla cheopis .

murine

pertaining to or affecting mice or rats. Strictly speaking refers to members of the subfamily Murinae, the Old World rats and mice. See also mouse.

chronic murine pneumonia
see murine respiratory mycoplasmosis (above).
chronic murine respiratory disease
see murine respiratory mycoplasmosis.
murine epizootic diarrhea
occurs in young mice up to 3 weeks of age. Caused by a rotavirus and characterized by mucoid yellow diarrhea, a high morbidity but a low mortality. Called also epizootic diarrhea of infant mice (EDIM).
murine leukemia virus
a number of viruses in the family Retroviridae which are associated with the naturally occurring and experimentally induced leukemia or lymphosarcoma in mice.
murine respiratory mycoplasmosis
a disease of mice caused by Mycoplasma pulmonis and characterized by dyspnea, nasal discharge, head tilt and incoordination. In most mice, infection occurs without clinical signs. Called also chronic respiratory disease of rats and mice, chronic murine pneumonia.
murine typhus
a disease of rats caused by Rickettsia typhi, transmitted by the rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis and the rat louse Polyplax spinulosa. It is an important disease of humans.

typhus

acute infectious diseases caused by Rickettsia which are usually transmitted from infected rats and other rodents to humans by lice, fleas, ticks and mites.

Abyssinian tick typhus
canine typhus, canine tick typhus
see canine ehrlichiosis.
epidemic typhus
see rickettsiaprowazeki.
Kenya typhus
murine typhus
a disease of humans caused by Rickettsia typhae; rats and cats are the mammalian reservoir.
Queensland tick typhus
caused by Rickettsia australis. See queensland tick typhus.
Sao Paulo typhus
scrub typhus
caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Wild rodents and occasionally dogs may be hosts.
References in periodicals archive ?
Murine typhus, the disease caused by this bacterium is related through history with famine and overcrowding, with the rural population more susceptible to infection.
Identification of a novel rickettsial infection in a patient diagnosed with murine typhus.
Such ecosystems support vector breeding, blood-feeding, and rickettsial disease transmission among new mammalian reservoirs, such as flying squirrels for epidemic typhus and opossums for murine typhus.
The alerts included a definition of murine typhus and its symptoms in addition to descriptions of how the disease is transmitted, treated, and prevented.
If murine typhus was misdiagnosed as remittent fever, then typhus was more wide spread than previously considered.
During 2002, a total of 47 cases of murine typhus were identified in Hawaii, the largest number recorded annually since 1947.
Endemic typhus, also called murine typhus, is not directly contagious from person to person,'' Reporter said.
which had successfully kept the southeastern states malaria-free during World War II and, for approximately one year, from murine typhus fever.
While the plague is an extremely rare disease today, fleas also transmit a bacterial disease, murine typhus, to humans through infected rats.
Lu TM, Kuo BI, Chung YM, Liu CY Murine typhus presenting with multiple white dots in the retina.
Van Gordon said the fleas on opossums and rodents carry endemic typhus, sometimes referred to as murine typhus.