murine typhus


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Related to murine typhus: scrub typhus, bubonic plague

mu·rine ty·phus

a milder form of epidemic typhus caused by Rickettsia typhi and transmitted to humans by rat or mouse fleas.

murine typhus

n.
A mild, acute, endemic form of typhus caused by the microorganism Rickettsia typhi, transmitted from rats to humans by fleas and characterized by fever, headache, and muscular pain. Also called endemic typhus.

murine typhus

An acute rickettsial infection characterised by fever, headache and rash, similar to (but milder than) epidemic typhus, caused by Rickettsia typhi.  MT occurs sporadically worldwide; it is more prevalent in congested rat-infested urban areas. In the US, it occurs in California, Texas and Hawaii.

Clinical findings
Rash, headache, fever, chills, myalgia, nausea, vomiting, cough; nearly half of patients develop neurological signs (e.g.,  confusion, stupor, seizures, incoordination).

DiffDx
Measles, rubella, Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

Vector
R typhi is transmitted to humans by rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), Reservoir Rats, mice and other rodents.

Management
Tetracycline, chloramphenical.

mu·rine ty·phus

(myūr-ēn' tī'fŭs)
A milder form of epidemic typhus caused by Rickettsia typhi and transmitted to humans by fleas from rats or mice.
Synonym(s): endemic typhus.

murine typhus

An acute but comparatively mild disease featuring fever, headache, muscle aches and a slightly raised MACULAR skin rash. It is caused by Rickettsia mooseri , harboured by rats, and transmitted to humans by the flea Xenopsylla cheopis .
References in periodicals archive ?
Of 302 enrolled patients, 103 (34.1%) had qPCR-confirmed scrub typhus, 12 (4.0%) had qPCR-confirmed murine typhus, and 2 (0.7%) cases could not be diagnosed beyond genus-specific Rick17b qPCR positive (i.e., Rickettsia spp.).
Distribution map showing (A) locations of the cobra gold training exercise during the training period of 2017 and 2018 together with average of incidence of scrub typhus cases between 2016 and 2018; (B) Orientia (OT) and Rickettsia (RT) positivity in trombiculid chiggers; (C) Seropositivity of antibodies to scrub typhus (STG), murine typhus (MT) and spotted fever rickettsiosis (STG) among rodent population trapped in the training sites.
Apart from the aforementioned common clinical features, abdominal symptoms in murine typhus such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal tenderness are not unusual [2, 4].
The percentage of organ-specific complications (pneumonitis, hepatitis, meningoencephalitis, renal failure) does not usually exceed 10%, and severe cases (development of refractory shock, respiratory distress, multiple organ failure, hemorrhagic diathesis, consumptive coagulopathy, or severe neurological compromise) there are only around 2-4%, mortality of murine typhus ranges from 0-1%.
Murine typhus in Greece: epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic data from 83 cases.
felis rickettsiosis are often underreported or misdiagnosed as murine typhus due to serological cross-reactions, especially in regions with limited molecular diagnostic capabilities.
No deaths were attributed to murine typhus; however, 73% of the confirmed patients were hospitalized, and 27% were admitted to intensive-care units.
Evidence points to a malaria epidemic in the summer and autumn, but by winter the men suffered from murine typhus, not malaria.
Two patients fulfilled the criteria for having both JSF and ST, and 1 patient was confirmed to have murine typhus. Overall, our analysis included 31 patients with JSF, 188 patients with ST, and 97 patients with nonrickettsial diseases (Figure 1).
This repellent system also provides protection against other vector-borne pathogens in the ROK, so its implementation to prevent disease from tick-borne pathogens also provides added protection against malaria, Japanese encephalitis, scrub typhus, body lice (epidemic typhus), fleas (murine typhus), and other biting arthropods.
Murine typhus, a zoonotic disease caused by Rickettsia typhi, is uncommon in the United States.