muramic acid


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Related to muramic acid: gluconic acid, N-Acetylneuraminic acid

mu·ram·ic ac·id (Mur),

(myū-ram'ik as'id),
2-Amino-3-O-(1-carboxyethyl)-2-deoxy-d-glucose; d-glucosamine and lactate in ether linkage between the 3 and 2 positions, respectively; a constituent of the mureins in bacterial cell walls.

muramic acid

(myo͝o-răm′ĭk)
n.
An amino sugar, C9H17NO7, found in the peptidoglycan layer of the cell walls of many bacteria.
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Muramic acid was most highly correlated with midchain 3-OHFAs.
Category Characteristic n Mean Median Interquartile range GNB Endotoxin (LAL) (EU/mg) Bed dust 294 23.7 18.9 12.3-31.3 Family room dust 354 64.3 38.6 25.6-58.9 Endotoxin (rFC) (EU/mg) Bed dust 294 8.8 5.9 3.2-10.6 Family room dust 354 28.7 10.3 5.3-23.9 Midchain 3-OHFAs (pmol/mg) Bed dust 294 39.6 35.8 28.0-47.2 Family room dust 354 64.6 60.3 48.9-75.6 GPB Muramic acid (ng/mg) Bed dust 293 69.4 62.6 45.0-79.4 Family room dust 350 77.4 72.2 54.6-95.3 Fungi [beta]-D-Glucan (ng/mg) Bed dust 294 19.4 16.8 11.6-24.6 Family room dust 353 29.9 25.0 17.0-36.3 Ergosterol (ng/mg) Bed dust 294 1.3 1.0 0.6-1.7 Family room dust 344 4.1 2.5 1.7-4.1 Table 3.
Evaluation of the methyl ester O-methyl acetate derivative of muramic acid for the determination of peptidoglycan in environmental samples by ion-trap GC-MS-MS.
The higher amino sugar concentrations may be attributed to a decreased mineralisation of hexosamines and muramic acid due to more recalcitrant litter and/or to increased contribution of microbial substances at the reforestation site as indicated by the presence of visible fungal hyphae, coupled with an increasing population of bacteria living upon the residues of fungi (Troeh and Thompson 1993).
Glucosamine is an important constituent of the fungal cell wall, while in terrestrial ecosystems muramic acid uniquely originates from bacteria (Kenne and Lindburg 1983).
Virgin 10.8 [+ or -] 3.2 0.42 [+ or -] 0.08 Cultivated 1.6 [+ or -] 0.2 0.71 [+ or -] 0.08 Glucosamine Muramic acid (mg C kg) (mg C kg) Virgin 1749 [+ or -] 248 86 [+ or -] 17 Cultivated 408 [+ or -] 329 25 [+ or -] 14 G/M ratio Virgin 20.8 [+ or -] 2.6 Cultivated 15.4 [+ or -] 2.8
Furthermore, the greater ratio of glucosamine to muramic acid in the virgin soil indicates that fungi were more abundant than bacteria (Amelung et al.
The presence of muramic acid, HMG CoA reductase and cholesterol oxidase activity inhibited by antibiotics indicates the presence of bacteria with mevalonate pathway.
The presence of muramic acid' HMG CoA reductase and cholesterol oxidase activity inhibited by antibiotics indicates the presence of bacteria with mevalonate pathway.
The parameters checked as indicated above were:cytochrome F420, free RNA, free DNA, muramic acid, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, hydrogen peroxide, serotonin, pyruvate, ammonia, glutamate, cytochrome C, hexokinase, ATP synthase, HMG CoA reductase, digoxin and bile acids.
The following estimations were carried out:Cytochrome F420, free RNA, free DNA, muramic acid, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, hydrogen peroxide, serotonin, pyruvate, ammonia, glutamate, cytochrome C, hexokinase, ATP synthase, HMG CoA redutase, digoxin and bile acids [10,11,12,13].