This study showed that an activating antibody directed against Notch3 reduced mural cell
loss, a hallmark characteristic of CADASIL.
NG2 proteoglycan was invariably expressed by the mural cell
component of mouse neovascular structures  (Figure 8).
Role of CD44+ stem cells in mural cell
formation in the human choroid: evidence of vascular instability due to limited pericyte ensheathment.
Analysis of mural cell
recruitment to tumor vessels.
Krautler and colleagues isolated pure vascular mural cell
populations from fat tissue of mice, which were then introduced into collagen sponges.
In blood vessels, matrix scaffold degradation is mediated by activation of MMPs to facilitate endothelial and mural cell
migration and invasion.
Different molecules and pathways have been involved in mural cell
motility and adhesion.
Cerebral aneurysms are characterized by disruption of the internal elastic lamina (IEL), phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), apoptosis of mural cells
, and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, which are considered as the hallmarks of CA .
Interestingly, it has variously been shown that mural cells
, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), or fibroblasts further promote the vascularization process [9, 10, 13, 15].
Furthermore, T[beta]4 was shown to facilitate angiogenic sprouting, by activating SRF target genes via the nuclear translocation of MRTF-A , and to foster the attachment of mural cells
to endothelial cell tubes, improving the functionality of vessels [12,13].
On the other hand, it is known that apoptosis can occur in at least four different follicular compartments, theca cells, mural cells
, cumulus cells and in the oocyte (12) and that ovarian follicles with identical morphology have different apoptosis levels in mural granulosa and cumulus cells (25).