The beam consists of mostly muon neutrinos
of energy around 2.5 GeV and expects a total exposure of 1.47 x [10.sup.21] POT running 3.5 years in neutrino mode and 3.5 years in antineutrino mode.
Since its discovery, two more "flavors" have been confirmed: tau neutrinos and muon neutrinos
, which are associated with two unstable partner particles that, like electrons, belong to the lepton family of elementary particles.
In order to confront our present results with the recent MiniBooNE data, we assumed the following experimental quantities: the utilised muon neutrino
flux, [[PHI].sub.v] ([E.sub.v]), is normalised to the protons on target (POT) with [N.sub.POT] denoting
An electron neutrino can oscillate into a tau neutrino if the disintegrated quark-antiquark pair ([u.sub.0] [[bar.u].sub.0]) is excited into ([u.sub.1] [[bar.u].sub.1]) (Figure 4a), a muon neutrino
if the disintegrated quark-antiquark pair (u0u0) is changed in flavor into ([d.sub.0] [[bar.d].sub.0]) (Figure 4b), and a lambda neutrino if the disintegrated quark-antiquark pair ([u.sub.0] [[bar.u].sub.0]) is excited into ([u.sub.1] [[bar.u].sub.1]) and then changed in flavor into ([d.sub.1] [[bar.d].sub.1]) (Figure 4c).
To test the idea, researchers will first measure what fraction of muon neutrinos
in the T2K beam turn into electron neutrinos.
The SNO team deduced this by comparing the rates of detections with those in a larger, normal-water experiment in Japan known as Super-Kamiokande (where evidence that muon neutrinos
in cosmic-ray showers change flavor was announced three years ago; see S&T: September 1998, page 19).
The quantized view of equation (3) indicates that one of the intra-particle quantization components can be the source for the generational identity and a foundation for the generational exchange seen in the muon neutrino
interaction [v.sub.[mu]] + N [right arrow] [P.sup.+] + [[mu].sup.-].
Periodic oscillations have been reported  in Pm142 which show an oscillating sinusoidal decay for electron capture (as contrasted to a conventionally established exponential decay) which the authors attribute to modulations caused by the oscillation of neutrinos between two different mass states (flavors), that of the electron neutrino emitted in the original decay, and that of the muon neutrino
which is observed in decays of the muon (a particle 200 times more massive than the electron).
Casper et al., "Search for muon neutrino
oscillations with the Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven detector," Physical Review Letters, vol.
Andringa et al., "Evidence for muon neutrino
oscillation in an accelerator-based experiment," Physical Review Letters, vol.
In 1998, researchers working at the SuperKamiokande detector in Japan demonstrated that neutrinos, which come in three varieties--electron neutrino, muon neutrino
, and tau neutrino--can change into one another (SN: 6/13/98, p.
Alexopoulos, "Observation of Muon neutrino
disappearance with the MINOS detectors in the NuMI neutrino beam," Physical Review Letters, vol.