a suspension of attenuated or killed microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, or rickettsiae), administered for prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious diseases.
a cell-free protein extract of cultures of Bacillus anthracis,
used for immunization against anthrax
attenuated vaccine a vaccine prepared from live microorganisms or viruses cultured under adverse conditions, leading to loss of their virulence but retention of their ability to induce protective immunity.
autogenous vaccine a vaccine prepared from microorganisms which have been freshly isolated from the lesion of the patient who is to be treated with it.
bacterial vaccine a preparation of killed or attenuated bacteria used as an active immunizing agent.
a preparation of killed Vibrio cholerae,
administered intradermally, subcutaneously, or intramuscularly for immunization against cholera
diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine
DTP vaccine: a combination of diphtheria
and tetanus toxoids
and pertussis vaccine
; administered intramuscularly for simultaneous immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough. When the pertussis vaccine is an acellular form, the combination may be abbreviated DTaP
Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine
(HbCV) a preparation of Haemophilus influenzae
type b capsular polysaccharide covalently bound to diphtheria toxoid
or to a specific diphtheria protein, meningococcal protein, or tetanus protein; it stimulates both B and T lymphocyte responses and is much more immunogenic than the polysaccharide vaccine. Administered intramuscularly as a routine immunizing agent in infants and young children.
Haemophilus b polysaccharide vaccine
(HbPV) a preparation of highly purified capsular polysaccharide derived from Haemophilus influenzae
type b, which stimulates an immune response
in B lymphocytes only; administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously as an immunizing agent in children ages 18 months to 5 years.
hepatitis A vaccine inactivated
an inactivated whole virus vaccine derived from an attenuated strain of hepatitis A virus
grown in cell culture; administered intramuscularly.
hepatitis B vaccine
a preparation of hepatitis B surface antigen
, derived either from human plasma of carriers of hepatitis B (hepatitis B vaccine inactivated)
or from cloning in yeast cells (hepatitis B vaccine [recombinant]);
heterologous vaccine a vaccine that confers protective immunity against a pathogen that shares cross-reacting antigens with the microorganisms in the vaccine.
human diploid cell vaccine rabies vaccine
prepared from rabies virus grown in cultures of human diploid embryo lung cells and inactivated; administered intramuscularly or intradermally.
live vaccine a vaccine prepared from live microorganisms that have been attenuated but retain their immunogenic properties.
Lyme disease vaccine (recombinant OspA)
a preparation of outer surface protein A (OspA), a cell surface lipoprotein of Borrelia burgdorferi,
produced by recombinant technology; administered intramuscularly for active immunization against lyme disease
measles and rubella virus vaccine live
a combination of live attenuated measles
and rubella viruses
, administered subcutaneously for simultaneous immunization against measles
meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine
a preparation of a capsular antigen of Neisseria meningitidis,
administered subcutaneously to provide immunity to meningitis
a preparation of killed Bordetella pertussis
bacilli (whole-cell vaccine) or of purified antigenic components thereof (acellular vaccine), used to immunize against pertussis
; generally used in combination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP
a preparation of killed Yersinia pestis
bacilli, administered intramuscularly as an active immunizing agent against plague
pneumococcal heptavalent conjugate vaccine
a preparation of capsular polysaccharides from the seven serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae
most commonly isolated from children 6 years of age or younger, coupled to a nontoxic variant of diphtheria toxin
; used as an active immunizing agent for infants and children at risk for pneumococcal disease, administered intramuscularly.
pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent
a preparation of purified capsular polysaccharides from the 23 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae
causing the majority of pneumococcal disease; used as an active immunizing agent in persons over 2 years of age, administered intramuscularly.
poliovirus vaccine inactivated
(IPV) a preparation of killed polioviruses
of three types, given in a series of intramuscular or subcutaneous injections to immunize against poliomyelitis
. It does not induce intestinal immunity and so is not effective for poliovirus eradication in areas where wild-type polioviruses still exist in large numbers. However, it does not cause vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis and so is preferred for routine immunization in areas where the risk of infection by a wild-type poliovirus is very low, as in the United States. Called also Salk vaccine
poliovirus vaccine live oral
(OPV) an oral vaccine against poliomyelitis
consisting of three types of live, attenuated polioviruses. It is given orally, often on a sugar cube, and so is convenient for administration to children and large groups of people. It induces both humoral and intestinal immunity, so is useful for immunization and poliomyelitis eradication in areas where wild-type polioviruses have not been eradicated. However, it can cause vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in persons newly vaccinated with it and their contacts, which is considered an unjustifiable risk in countries such as the United States, where the risk of exposure to wild-type polioviruses is very low. Thus, for routine immunization in the United States, it has been superseded by poliovirus vaccine inactivated
. Called also Sabin vaccine
polyvalent vaccine a vaccine prepared from cultures or antigens of more than one strain or species.
purified chick embryo cell vaccine
an inactivated virus vaccine used for pre- and postexposure rabies
immunization, prepared from rabies virus grown in cultures of chicken fibroblasts; administered intramuscularly.
rabies vaccine adsorbed
(RVA) a rabies vaccine
prepared from rabies virus
grown in cultures of fetal rhesus monkey lung and inactivated; administered intramuscularly.
rotavirus vaccine live oral
a live virus vaccine produced from a mixture of four types of rotavirus
, used to immunize infants against rotaviral gastroenteritis
rubella and mumps virus vaccine live
a combination of live attenuated rubella
and mumps viruses
, administered subcutaneously for simultaneous immunization against rubella
subunit vaccine a vaccine produced from specific protein subunits of a virus and thus having less risk of adverse reactions than whole virus vaccines.
any of several preparations of Salmonella typhi
used for immunization against typhoid fever
, including a parenteral heat- and phenol-inactivated bacteria vaccine, an oral live vaccine prepared from the attenuated strain Ty21a, and a parenteral vaccine prepared from typhoid Vi capsular polysaccharide.
yellow fever vaccine
a preparation of attenuated yellow fever virus, used to immunize against yellow fever
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.
vaccine (vak-sen', vak'sen?) [L. (variola) vaccina, cow(pox)]
An infectious liquid derived from cowpox lesions and used to prevent and attenuate smallpox in humans. See: Jenner, Edward
Any suspension containing antigenic molecules derived from a microorganism, given to stimulate an immune response to an infectious disease. Vaccines may be made from weakened or killed microorganisms; inactivated toxins; toxoids derived from microorganisms; or immunologically active surface markers extracted or copied from microorganisms. They can be given intramuscularly, subcutaneously, intradermally, orally, or intranasally; as single agents; or in combinations.
The ideal vaccine should be effective, well tolerated, easy and inexpensive to manufacture, easy to administer, and easy to store. In practice, side effects from vaccines (such as fevers, muscle aches, and pain at the injection site) are common but generally mild. Adverse reactions to vaccines that should be reported include anaphylaxis, shock, seizures, active infection, and death. See: immunization
Because vaccines may cause side effects, all those who receive them should carefully review federally mandated Vaccine Information Sheets before they are immunized.
adsorbed anthrax vaccine
A cell-free, aluminum-hydroxide-adsorbed vaccine, administered to raise protective antibodies against Bacillus anthracis. B. anthracis has been used in biological warfare.
antitumor vaccineAntitumor vaccination.
Bacterial vaccine prepared from lesions of the individual to be inoculated. Synonym: homologous vaccine
A suspension of killed or attenuated bacteria; used for injection into the body to produce active immunity to the same organism.
Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine, a preparation of a dried, living but attenuated culture of Mycobacterium bovis. In areas with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), it is used to provide passive immunity to infants against disseminated TB or TB meningitis, and it affords some protection against leprosy. It is not effective prevention, however, against pulmonary infection with TB. Among its other shortcomings, the vaccine cannot be used in pregnant women or in the immunosuppressed. It also produces hypersensitivity to TB skin tests, making them unreliable for several years. The vaccine can be used in cancer chemotherapy, e.g., to treat multiple myeloma and cancer of the colon, or as a bladder wash in patients with carcinoma of the bladder. See: bacille Calmette-Guérin
A vaccine prepared from killed or inactivated Vibrio cholerae.
dendritic cell vaccine
An anticancer vaccine made by extracting dendritic (antigen-presenting) cells from a patient with cancer, stimulating those cells to reproduce themselves, and then exposing them to antigens taken from the patient's cancer. The antigenically exposed dendritic cells are then injected back into the patient.
A vaccination against Corynebacterium diphtheriae. See: DTaP vaccine
A vaccine made by genetic engineering in which the gene that codes for an antigen is inserted into a bacterial plasmid and then injected into the host. Once inside the host, it uses the nuclear machinery of the host cell to manufacture and express the antigen. Unlike other vaccines, DNA vaccines may have the potential to induce cellular as well as humoral immune responses.
An obsolete combination of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and killed pertussis bacilli. It is no longer given in pediatric immunizations because of the superiority of DTaP, a vaccine that contains only acellular pertussis.
A preparation of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis proteins. It is used to immunize children against all three infections or adults at high risk of complications of infection with pertussis.
A genetically manipulated food containing organisms or related antigens that may provide active immunity against infection. Edible vaccines against many microorganisms are being developed, with the goal of using them to vaccinate children in nonindustrialized countries where there are obstacles to the use of traditional injectable vaccines.
Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine Abbreviation: HIB
A vaccine created by combining purified polysaccharide antigen from the Haemophilus nfluenzae bacteria and a carrier protein. It reduces the risks of childhood epiglottitis, meningitis, and other diseases caused by H. influenzae.
hepatitis B vaccine
A vaccine prepared from hepatitis B protein antigen produced by genetically engineered yeast. The vaccine prevents acute infection with hepatitis B, the chronic carrier state of hepatitis B infection. In developing nations where hepatitis B infection is endemic, it has been shown to decrease the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma resulting from hepatitis B infection. The World Health Organization has recommended that the vaccine be given to all infants and adolescents, as well as all health care workers and all patients receiving hemodialysis; all incarcerated prisoners; men who have sex with men; and those who inject drugs.
hepatitis B virus vaccine
A recombinant vaccine used to vaccinate children and others at high risk for coming in contact with either hepatitis B carriers or blood or fluids from such people. It contains noninfectious hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), which stimulates the production of antibodies and provides active immunity. Included in the high-risk group are health care workers, hemodialysis patients, police officers and other public safety workers, people with other forms of chronic hepatitis, intravenous drug users, family members and sexual partners of those infected with HBV, and people who travel extensively abroad. See: hepatitis B immune globulin
A vaccine made from some source other than the patient's own tissues or cells; the opposite of autogenous vaccine.
A vaccine derived from an organism different from the organism against which the vaccine is used.
homologous vaccineAutogenous vaccine.
A vaccine that protects against several types of human papillomavirus infection, specifically those associated with genital warts and cervical cancer.
human diploid cell rabies vaccine Abbreviation: HDCV
An inactivated virus vaccine prepared from fixed rabies virus grown in human diploid cell tissue culture.
inactivated poliovirus vaccine, poliovirus vaccine, inactivated
An injectable vaccine made from three types of inactivated polioviruses. Developed by Jonas E. Salk, it was the first successful vaccine against poliomyelitis and is now the only polio vaccine administered in the U.S. Synonym: Salk vaccine
Infants should be given three doses, the first at 2 months of age, followed by two more doses at 8-week intervals. A fourth dose should be given at age 18 months unless poliomyelitis is endemic in the area, in which case the fourth dose is given 6 to 12 months after the third. Additional doses are recommended prior to school entry and then every 5 years until age 18.
influenza virus vaccine
A polyvalent vaccine containing either inactivated or live attenuated antigenic variants of the influenza virus (types A and B either individually or combined) for annual usage. It prevents epidemic disease and the morbidity and mortality caused by influenza virus, esp. in the aged and persons with chronic illnesses. The vaccine is reformulated each year to match the strains of influenza present in the population.
A vaccine prepared from dead microorganisms. This type of vaccine is used to prevent disease caused by highly virulent microbes.
live attenuated influenza vaccine Abbreviation: LAIV
A live virus vaccine made with influenza viruses adapted to replicate in the nose, sinuses, and pharynx but not in the lower respiratory tract. LAIV is typically administered by nasal inhalation rather than by intramuscular injection.
live attenuated measles (rubeola) virus vaccine
A vaccine prepared from live strains of the measles virus. It is the preferred form except in patients who have one of the following: lymphoma, leukemia, or other generalized malignancy; radiation therapy; pregnancy; active tuberculosis; egg sensitivity; prolonged treatment with drugs that suppress the immune response, i.e., corticosteroids or antimetabolites; or administration of gamma globulin, blood, or plasma. Those persons should be given immune globulin immediately following exposure.
live measles and mumps virus vaccine
A standardized vaccine containing attenuated measles and mumps viruses.
live measles and rubella virus vaccine
A standardized vaccine containing attenuated measles and rubella viruses.
live measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine Abbreviation: MMR vaccine
A standardized vaccine containing attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses.
live measles virus vaccine
A standardized attenuated virus vaccine for use in immunizing against measles.
live oral poliovirus vaccine, poliovirus vaccine, live oral
A vaccine prepared from three types of live attenuated polioviruses. In 1999, an advisory panel to the CDC recommended that its routine use be discontinued. Because it contains a live, although weakened virus, it had been causing 8 to 10 cases of polio each year in the U.S. This risk was deemed no longer acceptable since by that date polio epidemics had been eliminated in the U.S. Therefore, since 1999 the live oral poliovirus vaccine has not been recommended or routinely given in the U.S. Instead only the inactivated poliovirus vaccine is approved and given in the U.S. Recommendations outside the U.S, , where polio outbreaks still occur, include the use of live oral polio vaccines. Synonym: Sabin vaccine
live rubella virus vaccine
An attenuated virus vaccine used to prevent rubella (German measles). All nonpregnant susceptible women of childbearing age should be provided with this vaccine to prevent fetal infection and the congenital rubella syndrome, i.e., possible fetal death, prematurity, impaired hearing, cataract, mental retardation, and other serious conditions. See: rubella
Women of child-bearing age who receive vaccination are advised to use effective birth control measures for at least 3 months following the immunization. Before administering the RA27/3 rubella vaccine, a history of allergies, esp. to neomycin, and of reactions to previous vaccinations should be obtained, and the primary care provider made aware of any problems. Those who are immunocompromised for any reason should not receive this vaccine, which is more immunogenic than previous preparations.
Lyme disease vaccine
A vaccine that uses as an antigen either the outer surface protein (OspA) of Borrelia burgdorferi or the decorin protein of the same microbe. Lyme vaccine is available in the U.S. for veterinary use only.
See: acute meningococcal meningitis
Any of the vaccines prepared from bacterial polysaccharides from certain types of meningococci. Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines A, C, Y, and W135 are available for preventing diseases caused by those serogroups. A vaccine for meningococcal serogroup B is not available.
All adolescents should initially receive meningococcal vaccine at age 11 or 12, and a booster at age 16. Patients with complement deficiencies, HIV, or asplenia should received two doses two months apart, beginning as early as age 2.
mumps vaccine, mumps virus vaccine live
A live attenuated vaccine used to prevent mumps. Its use should be governed by the same restrictions listed for live attenuated measles virus vaccine.
A vaccine that stimulates antibody production against specific amino acid sequences, e.g., those expressed on the surface of pathogens or cancer cells.
A vaccine against Bordetella pertussis. See: DTaP vaccine
A vaccine made either from a crude fraction of killed plague bacilli, Yersinia pestis, or synthetically from recombinant proteins. It is rarely used, except in a laboratory or for field workers in areas where plague is endemic.
pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
A pneumococcal vaccine used for active immunization of infants and toddlers. See: PCV7, PCV13
pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine Abbreviation: PCV7
A pneumococcal vaccine used for active immunization of infants and toddlers. The vaccine contains antigens from 7 capsular serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and is used to immunize children against pneumococcal diseases, such as otitis media, pneumonia, and meningitis.
A vaccine produced from cultures of a number of strains of the same species.
polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine
A vaccine that contains 23 of the known 83 pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides, and induces immunity against Streptococcus pneumoniae
, a gram-positive bacterium that causes ear, sinus, lung, blood, and meningeal infections. This vaccine is used to prevent pneumococcal disease in persons with sickle cell diseases; alcoholism; asplenia; chronic heart, lung, liver, or kidney disease; diabetes mellitus; and immunological illnesses; and in people over the age of 65.
The value of vaccination is continually rising, as S. pneumoniae becomes more and more resistant to antibiotics. The vaccine should not be coadministered in the same syringe as other vaccines. Common adverse reactions include pain at the site of injection and sometimes a low-grade fever.
A vaccine prepared from killed rabies virus used for pre-exposure immunization for persons at high occupational risk. Following a bite by a rabid animal, both the vaccine and rabies immune globulin, containing preformed antibodies, are given. See: human diploid cell rabies vaccine; rabies
A vaccine made by combining antigens from several viruses or from several strains of the same virus.
Sabin vaccineLive oral poliovirus vaccine. See: poliomyelitis
Salk vaccine See: inactivated poliovirus vaccine
A vaccine prepared from bacteria treated with their specific immune serum.
A vaccine used to provide immunity against smallpox. The vaccine is made from live vaccinia virus (not from the smallpox virus). Similarities between the two viruses make the vaccine about 95% effective in preventing smallpox in those exposed to the virus. Smallpox vaccine was not used for many years because smallpox had been eradicated worldwide. However, concerns over the use of smallpox as a biological weapon have resulted in vaccination of persons at high risk, e.g., public health workers, health care response teams, members of the armed services. The general public is not being vaccinated. The CDC recommends that persons who could be exposed to the monkeypox virus should also be vaccinated against smallpox.
A vaccine against Clostridium tetani. See: DTaP vaccine
tumor vaccineAntitumor vaccination.
One of two forms of vaccine against typhoid fever. Attenuated live virus is used for an oral vaccine taken in four doses by adults and children over age 6; it provides protection for 5 years. This vaccine should not be given to people taking antimicrobial drugs or to those with AIDS. A parenteral type of the vaccine, made from the capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi, given to children at least 6 months old, requires two doses 4 weeks apart, is effective 55% to 75% of the time, and lasts 3 years.
A sterile suspension of the killed rickettsial organism of a strain or strains of epidemic typhus rickettsiae.
varicella (chickenpox) vaccine
A chickenpox vaccine prepared from attenuated virus. See: chickenpox; herpes zoster
yellow fever vaccine
A vaccine made from a live attenuated strain of yellow fever that protects against this tropical, mosquito-borne, viral hemorrhagic fever.
mumps vaccine, mumps virus vaccine live
A live attenuated vaccine used to prevent mumps. Its use should be governed by the same restrictions listed for live attenuated measles virus vaccine.
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners