Phylloicus pulchrus has a multivoltine
life cycle with continuous cohorts observed throughout the year (Fig.
All four are characterized by multivoltine
biology and are widely distributed across the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts States.
Expression of metabolic enzyme genes and heat-shock protein genes during embryonic development in diapause and non-diapause egg of multivoltine
silkworm Bombyx mori.
This species is bivoltine or multivoltine
, with until three generations per year.
Few studies have evaluated the emergence of Chironomidae in aquatic communities because they are much diversified (MARCONDES; PINHO, 2005), exhibit multivoltine
cycles (SONODA et al., 2005; STUR et al., 2006) and short life cycle, of only a few weeks (RAUNIO et al., 2007).
Historical and projected interactions between climate change and insect voltinism in a multivoltine
species, Global Change Biology 14: 951-957.
They are usually multivoltine
with several generations at low latitudes (Nikbakhtzadeh and Tirgari, 2008).
Thus, species with slow larval (embryonic) growth rates are usually semelparous and univoltine, but can be iteroparous by precocious birth of larvae (embryos), and multivoltine
by accelerated growth of semelparous individuals.
The cluster analysis based on the UPGMA statistical package to establish relationship using haemolymph proteins (Figure-6) clearly indicated that [C.sub.108] and [NB.sub.4][D.sub.2] falls in the same cluster with a similarity coefficient of 0.18, Whereas Nistari and Pure Mysore being multivoltine
falls in one cluster with a similarity coefficient of 0.03.
These two late-season species were sampled in case the parasites sometimes linger that long in their hosts and in case the species is bivoltine or multivoltine
rather than limited to one generation per year.
Collection records suggest this species has a multivoltine