multiple parasitism

mul·ti·ple par·a·sit·ism

a condition in which parasites of different species parasitize a single host, in contrast to superparasitism (2) or hyperparasitism.
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Costs of multiple parasitism for an avian brood parasite, the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater).
Multiple parasitism is likely to be costly for Baywings because Screaming and Shiny cowbirds often puncture host eggs during nest visits, which may reduce host clutch size even in unparasitized nests (Hoy and Ottow 1964, Fraga 1998, Massoni and Reboreda 2002, Astie and Reboreda 2006).
We observed nest reuse in 51/ 51 cases within breeding seasons when the nest failed due to clutch ejection by hosts in response to multiple parasitism, but we only observed nest reuse in 1/46 cases when the nest failed due to predation.
Thus, multiple parasitism can arise as a consequence of a limitation of suitable nests, high fecundity rates of female cowbirds, or high population density of the parasite relative to the number of host breeding pairs (Martinez et al.
Spatial patterns of egg laying and multiple parasitism in a brood parasite: a non-territorial system in the Great Spotted Cuckoo (Clamator glamdarius).
Genetic and temporal patterns of multiple parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) on Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia).
We also predicted multiple parasitism to have a greater impact than single parasitism, and for larger and older broods to receive more food deliveries than smaller and younger broods.
Similar effects of single and multiple parasitism have been observed for other species (Dearborn et al.
Influence of Behavior of Brown-headed Cowbirds on Costs of Parasitism--Aspects of behavior of cowbirds also influenced the impact of parasitism via removal of eggs of the host or multiple parasitism.
Multiple parasitism can further amplify costs of parasitism via increased rates of removal of eggs of hosts by cowbirds and increased interspecific competition for food.
Observations of natural cowbird parasitism by the Bronzed Cowbird (Molothrus aeneus), including multiple parasitism, of the Green Jay (Cyanocorax yncas; Collins et al.

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