Therefore, multiple parasitism should be considered the real cause of its elevated weight.
Key words: multiple parasitism, massive infection, Taenia parva, perturbed Mediterranean ecosystem, Serra Calderona, Spain
2012: Multiple parasitism in wild maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Mammalia: Canidae) in Central Brazil.
Despite the low number of cowbirds fledging from meadowlark nests, rates of multiple parasitism were high (1.
Most nests experienced multiple parasitism events, indicating the same cowbird female returned to the nest to lay multiple eggs or that female cowbirds were using conspecific cues to locate nests.
Summary of Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna) clutch sizes with (P-clutch) and without parasitism, rates of multiple parasitism (M-parasitism), and number of Eastern Meadowlark fledging from nests with (P-fledglings) and without Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism in Ringgold County, Iowa, from 2009-2010.
Costs of multiple parasitism
for an avian brood parasite, the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater).
This estimate of survival does not take into account multiple parasitism
since we could not determine the number of fly larvae within a caterpillar using the ultrasound technique.
Influence of Behavior of Brown-headed Cowbirds on Costs of Parasitism--Aspects of behavior of cowbirds also influenced the impact of parasitism via removal of eggs of the host or multiple parasitism.
Multiple parasitism can further amplify costs of parasitism via increased rates of removal of eggs of hosts by cowbirds and increased interspecific competition for food.