Therefore, multiple parasitism should be considered the real cause of its elevated weight.
Key words: multiple parasitism, massive infection, Taenia parva, perturbed Mediterranean ecosystem, Serra Calderona, Spain
2012: Multiple parasitism in wild maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Mammalia: Canidae) in Central Brazil.
Despite the low number of cowbirds fledging from meadowlark nests, rates of multiple parasitism were high (1.72 BHCO [eggs.sup.nest]).
Most nests experienced multiple parasitism events, indicating the same cowbird female returned to the nest to lay multiple eggs or that female cowbirds were using conspecific cues to locate nests.
Numbers are based on the differences from the best model within each group (b) Number of parameters in each model (c) Model weight TABLE 3.--Summary of Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna) clutch sizes with (P-clutch) and without parasitism, rates of multiple parasitism (M-parasitism), and number of Eastern Meadowlark fledging from nests with (P-fledglings) and without Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism in Ringgold County, Iowa, from 2009-2010.
A study authored by Amuta, in Makurdi, Central Nigeria (2009) on school children showed a total of 330 (57.99%) that were infected with (31.21%) cases of multiple parasitism
. The most commonly found were those of Ascaris and hookworm (53), hookworm and Trichuris (17) and Ascaris and Trichuris (12).
Costs of multiple parasitism
for an avian brood parasite, the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater).
This estimate of survival does not take into account multiple parasitism
since we could not determine the number of fly larvae within a caterpillar using the ultrasound technique.
Specifically, our objectives were to: 1) measure frequencies and intensities of parasitism, responses of hosts, and effects of parasitism on productivity of hosts; 2) compare relative effects of parasitism in relation to differences in physical and behavioral traits; and 3) examine how aspects of behavior of cowbirds (i.e., removal of eggs of the host and multiple parasitism) further affect nesting success and productivity of hosts.
Influence of Behavior of Brown-headed Cowbirds on Costs of Parasitism--Aspects of behavior of cowbirds also influenced the impact of parasitism via removal of eggs of the host or multiple parasitism. Removal of eggs of the host by cowbirds represents an obvious cost for hosts.
Multiple parasitism can further amplify costs of parasitism via increased rates of removal of eggs of hosts by cowbirds and increased interspecific competition for food.