multiple drug resistance
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1. opposition, or counteracting force, as opposition of a conductor to passage of electricity or other energy or substance.
2. the natural ability of a normal organism to remain unaffected by noxious agents in its environment; see also immunity.
3. in psychology or psychiatry, conscious or unconscious defenses against change, preventing repressed material from coming into awareness; they can take such forms as forgetfulness, evasions, embarrassment, mental blocks, denial, anger, superficial talk, intellectualization, or intensification of symptoms. It occurs because the blocked association or understanding would be too threatening to face at this point in the therapy; identification of what point the resistance comes at can be an important indicator of the patient's unconscious patterns.
airway resistance the opposition of the tissues of the air passages to air flow: the mouth-to-alveoli pressure difference divided by the rate of air flow. Symbol RA or RAW.
androgen resistance resistance of target organs to the action of androgens, resulting in any of a spectrum of defects from a normal male phenotype in which men have normal genitalia but infertility to complete androgen resistance in which the individual has a female phenotype. Complete androgen resistance is an extreme form of male pseudohermaphroditism in which the individual is phenotypically female but is of XY chromosomal sex; there may be rudimentary uterus and tubes, but the gonads are typically testes, which may be abdominal or inguinal in position. Called also testicular feminization and testicular feminization syndrome. Incomplete androgen resistance is any of various forms less than the complete type, manifested by a male phenotype with various degrees of ambiguous genitalia such as hypospadias and a small vaginal pouch, a hooded phallus, or a bifid scrotum that may or may not contain gonads.
drug resistance the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of a drug that are lethal to most members of its species.
insulin resistance see insulin resistance.
multidrug resistance (multiple drug resistance) a phenomenon seen in some malignant cell lines: cells that have developed natural resistance to a single cytotoxic compound are also resistant to structurally unrelated chemotherapy agents. Called also cross-resistance.
peripheral resistance resistance to the passage of blood through the small blood vessels, especially the arterioles.
pulmonary vascular resistance the vascular resistance of the pulmonary circulation; the difference between the mean pulmonary arterial pressure and the left atrial filling pressure divided by the cardiac output. Called also total pulmonary vascular resistance.
total peripheral resistance the vascular resistance of the systemic circulation: the difference between the mean arterial pressure and central venous pressure divided by the cardiac output.
total pulmonary resistance (total pulmonary vascular resistance) pulmonary vascular resistance.
vascular resistance the opposition to blood flow in a vascular bed; the pressure drop across the bed divided by the blood flow, conventionally expressed in peripheral resistance units. Symbol R or R.
resistance(ri-zis'tans) [L. resistere, to remain standing]
1. Opposition to a disease, a toxin, or to a physical force.
2. In psychoanalysis, a condition in which the ego avoids bringing into consciousness conflicts and unpleasant events responsible for neurosis; the reluctance of a patient to give up old patterns of thought and behavior. It may take various forms such as silence, failure to remember dreams, forgetfulness, and undue annoyance with trivial aspects of the treatment situation.
3. Force applied to a body part by weights, machinery, or another person to load muscles as an exercise to increase muscle strength.
The impedance to the flow of air into and out of the respiratory tract, measured in cm H2O/L/s. Normal airway resistance is 4 cm H2O/L/s.
The ability of microorganisms to survive in the presence of antibiotics. Mutations have provided some bacteria with genes for enzymes that destroy antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, or aminoglycosides. Other mutations have changed the structure of bacterial cell walls formerly penetrable by antibiotics or have created new enzymes for cellular functions previously blocked by drugs. Synonym: antimicrobial resistance See: vancomycin-resistant enterococci; resistance transfer factor; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
CAUTION!The indiscriminate use of antibiotics provides the selection pressure that creates ever more resistant strains.
antimicrobial resistanceAntibiotic resistance.
The developed resistance of a virus to specific antiviral therapy.
The ability of bacteria to survive and cause continuous infection in the presence of antibiotics.See: antiviral resistance; antibiotic resistance; multidrug resistance; transfer factor
Misbehaving, stalling tactics, or temper tantrums used by children to avoid going to bed on time. Bedtime resistance may be caused by a variety of emotional or psychological factors, e.g., fear of the dark, loneliness, or the desire for more attention.
The ability of microorganisms that produce the enzyme beta-lactamase (penicillinase) to resist the action of certain types of antibiotics, including some but not all forms of penicillin. Beta-lactamases make these microorganisms resistant to antibiotics by catalyzing the destruction of the beta-lactam ring that is essential for their antibacterial activity.
The ability of bacteria, viruses, or cancer cells to live and reproduce despite treatment with more than one drug. In cancer therapy, resistance to a wide range of unrelated drugs may occur after resistance to a single agent has developed.Synonym: multidrug resistance; multiple drug resistance See: gene amplification
The ability of a disease, esp. one caused by infectious pathogens, to withstand drug treatment.
1. The impedence to airflow from the trachea, bronchi, mouth or nose during exhalation.
2. The use of a restricted orifice, or flow resistor, during positive-pressure ventilation to retard the flow of exhaled gases.
3. An objective measure of bronchospasm.
extended-spectrum beta-lactamase resistanceAbbreviation: ESBL
An enzymatically mediated antibiotic resistance found in gram-negative bacilli (such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), that make these bacteria resistant to cephalosporins and penicillin antibiotics.
1. A rare genetically inherited insensitivity of peripheral tissues to the effects of steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex. Affected patients produce excessive compensatory quantities of ACTH and may be affected by hyperandrogenism or mineralocorticoid excess.
2. Insensitivity to treatment with glucocorticoid drugs, e.g., prednisone for asthma or Crohn disease.
Cellular phenomena that prevent insulin from stimulating the uptake of glucose from the bloodstream and the synthesis of glycogen. Insulin resistance is one of the fundamental metabolic defects found in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
manual resistanceSee: resistance exercise
mechanical resistanceSee: resistance exercise
multidrug resistanceAbbreviation: MDR
multiple drug resistanceCross resistance.
The resistance of the arterial vascular system, esp. the arterioles and capillaries, to the flow of blood.
systemic vascular resistanceAbbreviation: SVR
The resistance to the flow of blood through the body's blood vessels. It increases as vessels constrict (as when a drug like norepinephrine is given) and decreases when vessels dilate (as in septic shock). Any change in the diameter, elasticity, or number of vessels recruited can influence the measured amount of resistance to the flow of blood through the body.
The amount of pressure necessary in overcoming resistance to flow.
The amount of resistance to the flow of electrical energy across the chest. This is an important factor to consider when electrical therapies such as defibrillation, cardioversion, and transthoracic pacing are used to treat abnormal cardiac rhythms.
Nonelastic opposition of tissue to ventilation due to the energy required to displace the thorax and airways.