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However, calculation of risk is complicated by factors like reduced penetrance, variable expressivity, use of linked DNA markers, variable age of onset, direct mutation analysis and multiple alleles.
Digital PCR has allowed the identification of multiple alleles in a substantial proportion of the analyzed samples.
The significance of the samples that showed multiple alleles is not clear and needs to be studied further.
Performing the exact test of Hardy-Weimberg proportion for multiple alleles.
Marker: A DNA sequence whose chromosomal location has been determined and which can be used in linkage analyses to try to identify genes; markers typically have multiple alleles.
In the case of a quantitative trait influenced by multiple genes, potentially with multiple alleles per gene, there are many possible combinations of alleles at w - 1 QTL.
It recognizes that genes are discrete entities through which characteristics are inherited and the existence of multiple alleles of a gene is responsible for variation within a population.
Using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by digestion of the PCR amplicon with restriction endonucleases (RE), multiple alleles have been identified.
Studies in mammals, including humans (9), birds (10), and medaka (11), support the existence of a single locus of the gene, although the presence of multiple alleles has been reported in pigs (12) and goldfish (13).
Extensions and refinements of Wright's original definitions have since been made to account for further population subdivision and multiple alleles at a locus (e.
Asexual and sexual reproduction, Mendelian inheritance, human hereditary, genetic crosses, multiple alleles, human blood groups, pedigree analysis, genetic counseling, inherited disorders, and sex determination in animals are just a few of the important topics that are presented in this section that would help students gain an understanding of critical concepts.

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