Nematode-induced syncytium--A multinucleate
Often dividing ciliates (multinucleate
) were observed in association with tissue necrosis and melanization, suggesting attached ciliates are actively growing and, therefore, likely feeding.
They are called root-knot nematodes, because the resulting giant cells become multinucleate
(up to greater than 100 nuclei) and are surrounded by cortical and pericycle cells that divide and proliferate resulting in the development of 'galls' or 'root knots' (Gheysen and Mitchum, 2011).
The cells are uni- or multinucleate
, with several parietal chloroplasts that can be discoid or band-shaped, sometimes appearing reticulate.
The fibrous capsule and septations contained a number of multinucleate
giant cells as well as hemosiderin-laden macrophages and cellular fibrous tissue containing some bony trabeculae.
Liver biopsy performed between acute episodes showed markedly swollen hepatocytes with rarefied cytoplasm with occasional multinucleate
, degenerated, and necrotic hepatocytes.
H& E stained section of skin biopsy showing a chronic granulomatous infiltrate of lympho-histiocytes, multinucleate
giant cells with neutrophilic microabscesses (20X).
Bagchi, "IL-10 modulates in vitro multinucleate
giant cell formation in human tuberculosis," PLoS ONE, vol.
Histopathologically, sclerema neonatorum is characterized by thickening of the connective tissue septa of the subcutaneous fat; absent to sparse inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes, histiocytes and multinucleate
giant cells; radially arranged needle-shaped clefts in adipocytes; and absence of adipocyte necrosis and calcification.
The immunohistochemical study demonstrated morbilliviral antigen in bronchiolar epithelium, type 2 pneumocytes, and multinucleate
(syncytial) cells from lung (Figure 1).
For the evaluation of cytotoxicity, the nuclear division cytotoxicity index (NDCI) was estimated by scoring mononucleate and multinucleate
as well as apoptotic and necrotic cells in a total of 500 cells.
7), which contains epithelioid and multinucleate