multi-infarct dementia

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Related to multi-infarct dementia: vascular dementia


a general loss of cognitive abilities, including impairment of memory as well as one or more of the following: aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, or disturbed planning, organizing, and abstract thinking abilities. It does not include loss of intellectual functioning caused by clouding of consciousness (as in delirium), depression, or other functional mental disorder (pseudodementia). Causes include a large number of conditions, some reversible and some progressive, that result in widespread cerebral damage or dysfunction. The most common cause is Alzheimer's disease; others include cerebrovascular disease, central nervous system infection, brain trauma or tumors, vitamin deficiencies, anoxia, metabolic conditions, endocrine conditions, immune disorders, prion diseases, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, normal-pressure hydrocephalus, Huntington's chorea, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease.
dementia of the Alzheimer type official name for alzheimer's disease.
Binswanger's dementia a progressive dementia of presenile onset due to demyelination of the subcortical white matter of the brain, with sclerotic changes in the blood vessels supplying it.
boxer's dementia a syndrome more serious than boxer's traumatic encephalopathy, the result of cumulative injuries to the brain in boxers; characterized by forgetfulness, slowness in thinking, dysarthric speech, and slow, uncertain movements, especially of the legs.
epileptic dementia a progressive mental and intellectual deterioration that occurs in a small fraction of cases of epilepsy; it is thought by some to be caused by degeneration of neurons resulting from circulatory disturbances during seizures.
multi-infarct dementia vascular d.
paralytic dementia (dementia paraly´tica) general paresis.
dementia prae´cox (obs.) schizophrenia.
presenile dementia name given to dementia of the Alzheimer type when it occurs in persons younger than age 65.
senile dementia name given to dementia of the Alzheimer type when it occurs in persons aged 65 or older.
substance-induced persisting dementia that resulting from exposure to or use or abuse of a substance, such as alcohol, sedatives, anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, lead, mercury, carbon monoxide, or organophosphate insecticides, but persisting long after exposure to the substance ends, usually with permanent and worsening deficits. Individual cases are named for the specific substance involved.
vascular dementia patchy deterioration of intellectual function resulting from damage by a significant cerebrovascular disorder.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

vas·cu·lar de·men·ti·a

a steplike deterioration in intellectual functions with focal neurologic signs, as the result of multiple infarctions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

multi-infarct dementia

Neurology A condition characterized by global cognitive impairment due to ASHD-induced disease; MID is more common in ♀ and associated with DM, HTN, smoking, amyloidosis Clinical Gait and motor defects, defects of language, mood, abstract thinking, apraxia, agnosia, urinary incontinence DiffDx Repeating 'mini-infarcts' of HTN mimic the gradual deterioration typical of the more common Alzheimer's disease, which lacks prominent motor and reflex changes. See Alzheimer's disease.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

multi-infarct dementia

Dementia resulting from multiple small strokes. After Alzheimer disease, it is the most common form of dementia in the U.S. It has a distinctive natural history. Unlike Alzheimer disease, which develops insidiously, the cognitive deficits of multi-infarct dementia appear suddenly, in stepwise fashion. The disease is rare before middle age and is most common in patients with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or other risk factors for generalized atherosclerosis. Brain imaging in patients with this form of dementia shows multiple lacunar infarctions. Synonym: vascular dementia
See also: dementia
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners
References in periodicals archive ?
Although no special diets or nutritional supplements have been found to prevent or reverse Alzheimer's disease or multi-infarct dementia, a balanced diet helps maintain overall good health.
Symptoms that begin suddenly may be a sign of multi-infarct dementia. in addition to confusion and problems with recent memory, symptoms of multi-infarct dementia may include wandering or getting lost in familiar places; moving with rapid, shuffling steps; loss of bladder or bowel control (incontinence); emotional problems, such as laughing or crying inappropriately; difficulty following instructions; and problems handling money.
Multi-infarct dementia and AD can exist together, making it hard for the doctor to diagnose either one specifically.
Acupuncture is another form of traditional Chinese medicine that has been investigated for the treatment of multi-infarct dementia, especially with regard to its effect on the electroencephalogram in patients with this condition [6].
With high-resolution CT scanners, it is now possible to confirm the presence of multi-infarct dementia in an increasing number of individuals who show evidence of areas of focal attenuation on a CT scan consistent with scars of old cerebral infarcts, although small infarcts and lacunae are sometimes better visualized on the MRI scan.
Multi-infarct dementia is caused by a series of strokes that disrupt blood flow and damage or destroy brain tissue.
Hyde commented on other classes of medications used to treat behavioral problems in patients with dementia (most commonly those with Alzheimer's disease, multi-infarct dementia, and alcoholic dementia):
Survival and cause of death in Alzheimer's disease and multi-infarct dementia. Acta Neurol Scand 1986; 74: 103-7.
Diagnostic Category Sample Size 1 Alzheimer's/Picks disease 233} 2 Multi-infarct dementia 10} 440 3 Dementia of unknown etiology 197} 4 Traumatic brain injury 197 5 Sleep disorders 53 6 Stroke 33 7 Subarachnoid hemorrhage 16 8 Hypoxia 14 9 Tumor 13 10 Neurosis 9 11 Metabolic 8 12 Alcohol and drug use 7 13 Parkinson's disease 5 14 Age-adjusted memory impairment 5 15 Hydrocephalus 3 16 Subdural hematoma 3 17 Psychosis 3 18 Multiple sclerosis 3 19 Aneurysm/AVM unruptured 3 20 Infection 1
Parker, age 6l, diagnosed with multi-infarct dementia, displays an exaggerated startle response.
Although some intriguing preliminary evidence suggests that a portion of those with multi-infarct dementia might improve with careful control of blood pressure,[4] most would not yet include these cases in the potentially reversible category.
She said his problem was called multi-infarct dementia. She said that she couldn't cure his memory problems, but that she would give him medicine to lower his high blood pressure.

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