* the mucosal wave
moves in an inverse direction (reverse Bernoulli effect);
Decreased mucosal wave
and vibration of the true vocal folds were observed.
Finally, the patient was instructed to phonate at a low pitch, causing a left physiological sulcus containing a vocal fold hemorrhage to be delivered superiorly by the mucosal wave
Videostroboscopic findings suggestive of presbyphonia include vocal fold bowing, prominent vocal processes, a spindle-shaped glottic chink, and reduction in amplitude of the mucosal wave
Symptomatic vocal fold scar alters phonation by interfering with the mucosal wave
. This may be due to the obliteration of the layered structure of the vibratory margin, as seen commonly after vocal fold stripping, or, to a limited extent, after other vocal fold surgery trauma.
Findings on videostroboscopy may include decreased mucosal wave
, vocal fold scarring disproportionate to the visible lesion, vibratory margin irregularities, and bilaterality of abnormalities in the face of a unilateral lesion.
Dysphonia generally ensues because of vocal fold stiffness leading to improper propagation of the mucosal wave
. Additionally, glottic incompetence, or the inability of the vocal folds to close completely, leads to air leakage and decreased vocal efficiency.
Both vocal folds featured a large mucosal wave
that was consistent with the observed background edema, although the mucosal wave
of the right vocal fold was less than that of the left vocal fold at the site of the intracordal lesion.
The left vocal fold mass effect made it impossible to judge the right mucosal wave
, which might not have been as impaired as it appeared to be.
Six months postoperatively, stroboscopy demonstrated a return of robust mucosal wave
without any subsequent hemorrhage.
The right true vocal fold was irregular with decreased mobility and mucosal wave
, and the left true vocal fold was similarly irregular with decreased mobility but no mucosal wave
The mucosal wave
and amplitude of the right true vocal fold were severely reduced.