mucosal immune system

mucosal immune system

Clusters of lymphoid cells beneath the mucosal endothelium of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts that help protect the body from inhaled, consumed, or sexually transmitted infections. The system has two parts: organized and diffuse. The organized part (the mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts) is composed of nodules containing lymphocytes and macrophages that are activated by ingested or inhaled microorganisms. The diffuse part is composed of loose clusters of macrophages and mature B and T lymphocytes found within the folds of the intestinal walls. The B cells secrete antibodies, primarily immunoglobulin A; the T cells directly lyse microorganisms.

The mucosal immune system is augmented by the presence of normal microflora; by peristalsis and cilia, which move mucus outward; and by various chemicals, such as gastric acid and pancreatic enzymes, which destroy pathogens. Normally all of these components must be functioning to prevent infection.

References in periodicals archive ?
The mucosal epithelium is central to the interactions between the mucosal immune system and the luminal contents, such as dietary antigens and microbial products (6).
"It is current knowledge that nutrition, the intestinal microbiota, the gut mucosal immune system, and autoimmune pathology are deeply intertwined," reads a 2014 study, titled "Role of 'Western Diet' in Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases" and published in the journal Current Allergy and Asthma Reports.
Activation of the mucosal immune system in irritable bowel syndrome.
Area B The epithelium as a regulator of immunity and inflammation in the bowel examines the effects of disruptions to the barrier function and antigen translocation on the mucosal immune system. The objective of research area C Diagnosis and therapeutic intervention of IBD is to develop innovative therapeutic and diagnostic approaches and evaluate them in a clinical setting.
It is well established that the gut microbiota is in close interaction with the intestinal mucosal immune system. Indeed, the intestinal mucosa may be considered as an immunological niche as it hosts a complex immune-functional organ comprised by T cell subpopulations and their related anti- and proinflammatory cytokines, as well as several other mediators of inflammation, in addition to the microbiota.
As the mucosal immune system must balance the ability to respond to pathogens with tolerance of commensal microbes, effector cell access to the MALT is tightly regulated.
Other articles discuss reproductive impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on wildlife species and implications for conservation of endangered species; viable cell culture banking for biodiversity characterization and conservation; bio-banking genetic material for agricultural animal species; development and function of the mucosal immune system in the upper respiratory tract of neonatal calves; detection of emerging zoonotic pathogens: an integrated one health approach; a comprehensive review of animal models for fetal surgery; and catfish biology and farming.
The paradox tolerance/activation makes the mucosal immune system a challenging task.
Cong et al., "Lactose intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhoea: the roles of anxiety, activation of the innate mucosal immune system and visceral sensitivity," Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol.
Aging brings on changes in microbiota composition, mucosal immune system, and regeneration capacities in the gastrointestinal tract.
Intestinal mucosal immune system has an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of the body by ensuring its immune response to pathogens and enabling the body to keep a dynamic balance between the internal and external environments (Didierlaurent et al., 2002; MacDonald, 2003; Shaykhiev & Bals, 2007).
The mucosal immune system : From dentistry to vaccine development Hiroshi KIYONO and Tatsuhiko AZEGAMI Communicated by Tatsuo SUDA, M.J.A.