Representatives of the Federation of Malaysian Manufacturers (FMM), the Malaysia-Taiwan Economic and Trade Association (MTTFA
), and the Taipei Investors Association in Malaysia were among the attendees.
Hong et al., "Aberrant cell proliferation by enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis via mtTFA
in arsenical skin cancers," The American Journal of Pathology, vol.
Also, CO gas increased the levels of mtTFA
indicating mitochondrial stress.
Enhanced expression of PGC-1[alpha], NRF1, and mtTFA
. Enhanced estrogen- related receptor a (ERR[alpha]), PPAR[alpha], and PPAR[alpha].
The proposed mechanisms underlying the T3 beneficial effects are the upregulation of mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA
) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1a) and the opening of the protective mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium channel (mitoK-ATP) .
These factors can combine with mitochondrial gene promoters, such as [beta]-ATP synthase, cytochrome C oxidation subunits IV, and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA
In cells treated with Amla, AMPK[alpha]-phosphorylation levels increased dramatically (Figure 2(b)), NRF1 and mtTFA
mRNA expression increased significantly, and PGC1[alpha] mRNA exhibited trends indicating increased expression levels (Figure 2(c)).
Horiike, "Reduced activity of mtTFA
decreases the transcription in mitochondria isolated from diabetic rat heart," American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol.
and the NRF-1 were markedly downregulated by IR.
The cDNA obtained was further diluted 5 times and used (10 [micro]L) in the real-time PCR reaction with TaqMan rat specific primers for MtTFA
(assay ID Rn00580051_m1) from Applied Biosystems (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY).
PGC-1a is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that is activated by 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) [329, 343-345] to trigger the transcription of nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA
), a key regulator of mitochondrial DNA replication .
Antibodies to PGC-1a, mtTFA
, Mfn-1, Mfn-2, Drp-1, OPA-1, p-Erk1/2, Erk1/2, p-JNK, JNK, p-p38, p38, OGA, OGT, and O-GlcNAc were from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA); anti-GAPDH was from Cell Signaling Technology (Danvers, MA); and antibodies to Complexes I (NDUFS3), II (subunit 30 kDa), III (subunit core 2), IV (subunit I), and V (subunit alpha) were from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, CA).