Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement pathology, severely afflicting dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra (SN) along with non-dopaminergic, extra-nigral projection bundles that control circuits for sensory, associative, premotor, and motor pathways
. Clinical, experimental, microanatomic, and biochemical evidence suggests PD involves multifactorial, oxidative neurodegeneration, and that levodopa therapy adds to the oxidative burden.
Prior to the analysis presented in this paper, the prevailing thought had been that the brain injury in children with CP associated with PVL primarily affected descending motor pathways
Both sensory and motor pathways
are potential future targets for pharmacologic intervention.
Her research demonstrates that brain waves remain abnormal in young athletes for two years following a concussion, and atrophy occurs in the motor pathways
of the brain following a hit.
It is increasingly recognised, however, that PD involves degeneration of regions in the central nervous system (CNS) other than motor pathways
, affecting mood, motivation and other functions, having a major impact on the quality of life for people with the disease.
The cortical areas responsible for the motor pathways
from the intact fingers increased in size, eventually taking over the brain area that previously controlled the missing finger.
He could go blind if it hits the visual pathway in his brain or paralyse him if it hits motor pathways
. If it hits the brain stem, the area that keeps us awake, he could die.
The most important obstacles against eliciting quantitative information about the lesions involving the descending motor pathways
are the variabilities in the latency amplitude, and shape of the motor responses elicited by motor cortex stimulation (predominantly caused by the variable activation level of the target muscle) and the uncertainty about whether, via magnetic stimulation, the whole population of the pyramidal tract fibers can be activated.