In terms of compensation for service on a global level, there are two forms of surrogate mothers, surrogate mother surrogate
mother altruistic and commercial (Hatzis, 2003: 415).
Instead it leads Bonaparte to conclude that these figures are not meant to criticize Aunt Lumb, who was her mother surrogate
, but rather reveal what Gaskell could never acknowledge openly, that she was utterly miserable while living with Aunt Lumb.
Although "fairy-tale" readings are more convincing than those given by critics who try to force the novel into a "realistic" mold and then complain when it won't fit, these readings, by stressing the European form of the story, tend to divert attention from its African-American content.(2) Some psychoanalytic critics refer to Shug as a "nurse" and a "mother-imago" (Ross 76, 79), or a "mother surrogate
" for Celie (Proudfit 24), and others suggest that Shug functions as a role-model (e.g., Kelly, Water-Dawson).
Finding its roots in her deprived childhood (ironically frozen out of her own family in the way she would be by the Windsors), Simpson was a manipulative social climber who, while on her second husband, calculatedly set out to win Edward and make him, weak of will and with a mother surrogate
obsession, dependent upon her.
Dykstra is careful to stay close to what is known and to avoid excessive speculation about events in Adams's life--even those that invite it, such as the death of her mother when Adams was five; the suicide of her aunt Susan, a mother surrogate
, when Adams was nine; the hostility to her of Henry's parents; Henry's dictum that her trip to New York, when she visited a friend and became interested in photography, would not "happen again."
While the idea that the Madonna and the Saints are viewed as spiritually powerful for good by most Italian Catholics and for both good and bad by some seems plausible, the ideas of Saints as "father surrogates" whose putative unity is "splintered" and Madonnas as "mother surrogates
" whose unity is both "splintered" and "separated" are debatable in themselves and, as explanations for phenomena which Carroll has not satisfactorily proved to exist, seem doubly redundant.